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Kelaart’s Dwarf Toad

Adenomus kelaartii (Günther 1858)

Description

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Snouth-vent length of mature males 25-33 mm, female 36-50 mm, body covered with smooth or spinous warts. Colouration is light to deep brown dorally and the venter is pale yellow to white, marbled with brown. Sometimes with very small red or red and blue dots.

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Distribution and Habitat

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Terra Typica: Ceylon.

This species is endemic to Sri Lanka where it is found in the wet zone, specially in the remaining parts of the rainforests: Kanneliya, Sinharaja, Peak Wilderness, Kitulgala up to 1230m NN (Dutta and Manamendra 1996; Manamendra and Pethiyagoda 1998). Adenomus kelaartii lives in the leaf litter near near streams. Sometimes it can be found on sand banks at river sites. Females climb up tree to heights of 15 m (Dutta and Manamendra 1998); the author of this account found one in a tree hole two meters above the ground.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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Adenomus kelaartii is active during day and night but it is easier found in the darkness mostly next to streams. Males were observed calling from mid-stream boulders at night. Females lay up to 1000 unpigmented eggs in a single row up to 7 cm. The larvae is first unpigmented, then the dorsal color changes into grey. Stage 25 larvae have a size of 6-9 mm. Later, the dorsal color changes into dark brown. Metamorphosis is complete after 49 days (temperature between 20° C and 23° C) and the young frogs leaves the water with a body length of 8-9 mm (Haas et al 1997).

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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There is not much information available for A. kelaartii. If habitat is protected, the survival of the species may be secure.

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Adenomus kelaartii

provided by wikipedia EN

Adenomus kelaartii (Kelaart's toad or Kelaart's dwarf toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is found in the south-west of the island at elevations between 30 and 1,230 m.[1][2]

Description

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Adenomus kelaartii in Günther's "Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the collection of the British Museum"

Kelaart's toad is a fairly small species with females having a snout-to vent length of 36 to 50 mm (1.4 to 2.0 in) and males 25 to 33 mm (1.0 to 1.3 in). The skin in some individuals is smooth but in others it bears spiny warts. The upper parts are brown more or less blotched with darker colour and the underparts are cream or white, blotched with brown and sometimes speckled with red flecks. In some individuals, there are both red and blue flecks on the underside.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Kelaart's toad is endemic to southwestern Sri Lanka where it is found at altitudes of up to 1,230 m (4,035 ft) above sea level. It does not have a continuous distribution as its range is fragmented into a number of separate locations. Its typical habitat is tropical humid forests where it occurs in the leaf litter on the ground near upland streams. It sometimes climbs into the lower parts of trees and has also been seen on sandbanks beside rivers, in rock crevices, in rotting logs and in holes in trees.[1][3]

Biology

Kelaart's toad is active both by day and by night. During the breeding season males call from beside bodies of water including mid-stream boulders. Females lay up to one thousand colourless eggs in a single strand, usually in a permanent pool. The tadpoles are also colourless at first but become grey as they develop and later dark brown. Metamorphosis takes place after about seven weeks and the juvenile toads emerging from the water are about 8 to 9 millimetres (0.31 to 0.35 in) long.[3]

Status

Kelaart's toad is fairly common in suitable habitat within its range but it occupies a total area of less than 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed it as being an "endangered species".[1] The chief threats it faces are the destruction of its forest habitat as trees are cut down and the land turned to agricultural use. However it is present in several protected areas and the IUCN advocates better management of these reserves.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi; Anslem de Silva; Deepthi Wickramasinghe (2004). "Adenomus kelaartii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54459A11135197. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54459A11135197.en. Retrieved 20 April 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Adenomus kelaartii (Günther, 1858)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Janzen, Peter (2005-04-25). "Adenomus kelaartii:Kelaart's dwarf toad". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
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Adenomus kelaartii: Brief Summary

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Adenomus kelaartii (Kelaart's toad or Kelaart's dwarf toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is found in the south-west of the island at elevations between 30 and 1,230 m.

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