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Brief Summary

    Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo bubalo (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766), noto anche come antilope bubalo o semplicemente bubalo, è la sottospecie nominale (vale a dire la prima a essere stata descritta) estinta dell'alcelafo, diffusa in passato a nord del deserto del Sahara. Altre sottospecie vivono ancora nelle praterie a sud del Sahara, dal Senegal a ovest all'Eritrea e all'Etiopia a est e alla Tanzania centrale a sud. L'alcelafo rosso e l'alcelafo di Liechtenstein, considerati, a seconda dell'autore, sottospecie o specie sorelle dell'alcelafo comune, sono diffusi nell'Africa meridionale.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus caama: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo rosso (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803) è una sottospecie di alcelafo originaria dell'Africa meridionale. Ne rimangono più di 130.000 esemplari.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo di Coke (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii Günther, 1884) è una sottospecie di alcelafo originaria di Kenya e Tanzania. Deve il nome a un certo colonnello Coke che ne abbatté un esemplare nei pressi di Usagara, in Tanzania, nel 1880. L'animale in questione fu il primo esemplare completo ad aver raggiunto l'Europa, a partire dal quale Albert Günther descrisse la sottospecie. La sottospecie è nota anche con il nome swahili di kongoni, ma molti locali usano questo nome per indicare anche altre grandi antilopi.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo lelwel (Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel Heuglin, 1877), noto anche come alcelafo di Jackson, è una sottospecie di alcelafo originaria dell'Africa centrale. Lelwel è il nome con cui l'animale è noto presso i locali.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus major: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo occidentale (Alcelaphus buselaphus major Blyth, 1869), noto anche come kanki, è una sottospecie di alcelafo originaria dell'Africa occidentale.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo di Swayne (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei P. L. Sclater, 1892), noto anche come korkay, è una rara sottospecie di alcelafo originaria dell'Etiopia. Deve il nome all'esploratore e cacciatore inglese Colonnello H. G. C. Swayne (1860-1940).

    Alcelaphus buselaphus tora: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo torà (Alcelaphus buselaphus tora Gray, 1873) è una sottospecie di alcelafo originaria del Corno d'Africa. Il nome deriva dalla parola tigrina torā᾿, con cui l'animale è noto presso i locali.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano

    L'alcelafo (Alcelaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766) è una specie di antilope africana di prateria, descritta per la prima volta da Peter Simon Pallas nel 1766. Gli adulti misurano poco più di 1 m al garrese. I maschi pesano 125–218 kg, e le femmine sono leggermente più piccole. Il colore del manto varia a seconda della sottospecie, da quello color sabbia dell'alcelafo occidentale a quello quasi nero dell'alcelafo di Swayne. Le corna sono presenti in entrambi i sessi; misurano 45–70 cm di lunghezza, e la loro forma varia moltissimo da una sottospecie all'altra. Gli alcelafi possono vivere 11-20 anni in natura, e fino a 19 in cattività.

    Gli alcelafi sono animali sociali che formano branchi di 20-300 individui. Di indole generalmente tranquilla, gli alcelafi possono diventare aggressivi quando vengono provocati. La loro dieta consiste prevalentemente di erba, alla quale si aggiungono, in ogni periodo dell'anno, piccole quantità di parti verdi e baccelli di erbe del genere Hyparrhenia. L'epoca della riproduzione varia in base alle stagioni, e dipende sia dalla sottospecie che dalla popolazione. Gli alcelafi raggiungono la maturità sessuale a uno o due anni di età. Dopo un periodo di gestazione di otto mesi, nasce un unico piccolo. L'alcelafo vive in savane, aree boschive e distese aperte.

    Ognuna delle otto sottospecie di alcelafo ha un differente stato di conservazione. L'alcelafo bubalo è stato dichiarato estinto dall'Unione Internazionale per la Conservazione della Natura (IUCN) nel 1994. In passato l'alcelafo era presente in gran parte dell'Africa, ma le varie popolazioni hanno subito un drastico declino a causa della distruzione dell'habitat, della caccia, dell'espansione degli insediamenti umani e della competizione con i bovini domestici per il cibo. L'alcelafo è estinto in Algeria, Egitto, Lesotho, Libia, Marocco, Somalia e Tunisia. È stato introdotto in Swaziland e Zimbabwe. Costituisce una preda molto ambita per i cacciatori a causa della sua carne molto apprezzata.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español

    El alcélafo o búbalo común (Alcelaphus buselaphus) es una especie de mamífero artiodáctilo de la subfamilia Alcelaphinae. En algunos casos también se les denomina erróneamente ñu rojo.[cita requerida]

    El alcelafo está relacionado con los damaliscos, el ñu y el antílope de Hunter. Existen evidencias que hacen suponer que el alcelafo fue domesticado por los antiguos egipcios y fue utilizado como animal para sacrificios.​​

    Alcelaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français
    image illustrant les bovidésCet article est une ébauche concernant les bovidés.

    Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

    Le bubale roux (Alcelaphus buselaphus) est un bovidé du genre Alcelaphus.
    Alcelaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )
    provided by wikipedia VI

    Alcelaphus buselaphus là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Bovidae, bộ Artiodactyla. Loài này được Pallas mô tả năm 1766.

    Alcelaphus buselaphus: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )
    provided by wikipedia PT

    A vaca-do-mato, cujo nome científico é Alcelaphus buselaphus, é uma espécie de antílope africano.

    A espécie tem oito variedades (subespécies), duas das quais até pouco tempo atrás eram consideradas espécies separadas: a caama (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama, antes Alcelaphus caama) e a gondonga (Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteinii, antes Alcelaphus lichtensteinii).

    A vaca-do-mato (Alcelaphus buselaphus) tem uma coloração amarronzada, focinho comprido e chifres com anéis em relevo presentes nos dois sexos.

    É conhecida pelo nome inglês de hartebeest, e, na Guiné-Bissau, pelo nome em crioulo da Guiné-Bissau tancon.

    Bawolec krowi: Brief Summary ( Polish )
    provided by wikipedia POL
     src= Bawolce w Parku Narodowym Etosha

    Bawolec krowi, dawniej także: bawolec, antylopa krowia (Alcelaphus buselaphus) – gatunek dużego ssaka z rodziny wołowatych.

    Buvolec stepní: Brief Summary ( Czech )
    provided by wikipedia CZ

    Buvolec stepní (Alcelaphus buselaphus) je velká antilopa, která obývá rozsáhlé travnaté savany i polopouště Západní, Východní a Jižní Afriky, je jediným druhem monotypického rodu (Alcelaphus).

    Búbal: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    El búbal (Alcelaphus buselaphus) és un antílop que viu als herbassars de l'Àfrica Occidental, Oriental i Meridional. És una de les tres espècies classificades al gènere Alcelaphus.

    El búbal fa gairebé 1,5 m d'alçada a l'espatlla i pot pesar entre 120 i 200 quilograms. Els mascles tenen un color marró fosc, mentre que les femelles són d'un marró groguenc. Ambdós sexes tenen banyes que poden assolir una mida de fins a 70 cm. Els búbals viuen en herbassars i boscos oberts, on s'alimenten d'herba. Són animals diürns i es passen el matí i el final de la tarda menjant. Els ramats contenen entre cinc i vint individus, però a vegades en poden contenir fins a 350.

    Hartebeest: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia
    African grassland antelope "Kongoni" redirects here. For the GNU/Linux distribution, see Kongoni (operating system).

    The hartebeest (/ˈhɑːrtəˌbiːst/; Alcelaphus buselaphus), also known as kongoni, is an African antelope. Eight subspecies have been described, including two sometimes considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m (3.3 ft) at the shoulder, and has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm (79 to 98 in). The weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg (220 to 440 lb). It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck, and pointed ears. Its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is generally short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the sandy brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swayne's hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender. Horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm (18–28 in). Apart from its long face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes.

    Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals. They are very alert and non-aggressive. They are primarily grazers, with their diets consisting mainly of grasses. Mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year with one or two peaks, and depends upon the subspecies and local factors. Both males and females reach sexual maturity at one to two years of age. Gestation is eight to nine months long, after which a single calf is born. Births usually peak in the dry season. The lifespan is 12 to 15 years.

    Inhabiting dry savannas and wooded grasslands, hartebeest often move to more arid places after rainfall. They have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The hartebeest was formerly widespread in Africa, but populations have undergone drastic decline due to habitat destruction, hunting, human settlement, and competition with livestock for food. Each of the eight subspecies of the hartebeest has a different conservation status. The Bubal hartebeest was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1994. While the populations of the red hartebeest are on the rise, those of the Tora hartebeest, already Critically Endangered, are falling. The hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Egypt, Lesotho, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, and Tunisia; but has been introduced into Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a popular game animal due to its highly regarded meat.

    Hartebeest: Brief Summary ( Swedish )
    provided by wikipedia SV
     src= Hartebeest i Namibia

    Hartebeest eller koantilop (Alcelaphus buselaphus) hör till de större, kraftigt byggda antiloperna. Namnet kommer från språket Afrikaans och betyder "hjortdjur (hert/hart) djur (beest) ".

    Hartenbeest: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    Het hartenbeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is een grote, algemene antilope uit de Afrikaanse grasvlakten. De naam "hartebeest" is aan het dier gegeven door de Boeren, die het dier vonden lijken op een hert.

    Punalehmäantilooppi: Brief Summary ( Finnish )
    provided by wikipedia FI

    Punalehmäantilooppi eli lehmäantilooppi (Alcelaphus buselaphus) on afrikkalainen lehmäantilooppien alaheimoon kuuluva sorkkaeläin.

    Nisäkäsnimistötoimikunta ehdotti vuonna 2008 lajille uutta suomenkielistä nimeä kongoni.

    Конгони: Brief Summary ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

    Конго́ни, или обыкновенный бубал, или коровья антилопа, или степной бубал (лат. Alcelaphus buselaphus) — вид антилоп семейства полорогих подсемейства бубалов (Alcelphinae).

    Конгоні: Brief Summary ( Ukrainian )
    provided by wikipedia UK

    Конгоні (Alcelaphus buselaphus) — вид парнокопитних ссавців родини бикових (Bovidae).

    ハーテビースト: Brief Summary ( Japanese )
    provided by wikipedia 日本語

    ハーテビーストは、哺乳綱ウシ目(偶蹄目)ウシ科ハーテビースト亜科の動物アフリカ大陸各地の草原に生息する。ペーター・ジーモン・パラスによって1766年に初めて記述された。現在までに絶滅したキタハーテビーストを含む8亜種が知られている。「レイヨウ」の一種で、シカレイヨウ、シカカモシカ(鹿羚羊)とも呼ばれる。

    成体の体高は1メートル強、体長は150~245センチメートル。オスの体重は125~218キログラム、メスの体重は116~185キログラム。体色は、砂色のニシハーテビーストWestern hartebeest)から大部分が黒いスウェインハーテビーストSwayne’s hartebeest)まで、亜種によって様々に異なる。両性とも45~70センチメートルまで成長する角を持ち、形は体色と同様亜種によって大きく異なる。野生環境では11~20年の寿命を持ち、飼育下では19年まで生きる。

    ハーテビーストは社会的動物として知られ、20~300頭の群れを形成する。通常は温和であるが刺激されると獰猛になる。イネ科キビ亜科の植物や豆果を餌とする。ハーテビーストは1~2歳で性的な成熟を迎え、8ヶ月の妊娠期を経て1頭の子供を産む。繁殖期は亜種や群によって異なる。

    種の保全状況は亜種によって異なり、キタハーテビーストは1994年に国際自然保護連合(IUCN)によって絶滅が宣言された。他のハーテビーストはアフリカ大陸各地に広く分布しているが、生息地の減少・ハンティング・人間入植家畜との餌の奪い合いなどによって個体数は減少傾向にある。現在では、アルジェリアエジプトレソトリビアモロッコソマリアチュニジアでは絶滅したが、スワジランドジンバブエには人為的に導入されている。

    狷羚: Brief Summary ( Chinese )
    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

    狷羚(學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus)是一種生活在草原地帶的羚羊,出沒在西非東非南非等地區。牠也是唯一歸入狷羚属的動物。

    狷羚立高約為1.5,體重約120-200公斤。雄性狷羚為深褐色,雌性則為黃褐色。雄性及雌性狷羚的角的形狀也是先向外曲,再向前,並且向後尖。角的長度可達70厘米。

    狷羚生活在草原或一些灌木林地,以短草為食物。牠們是日間活動,在早上及黃昏時段覓食。族群數目約5-20頭,有些甚至達到350頭的數目。族群由一頭雄性狷羚所帶領,領袖的狷羚是經過打鬥而產生的。

    在狷羚下,有以下7個亞種

    北非狷羚(Bubal Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus,已絕種。) 披紅狷羚(Red (Cape) Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus caama。) 柯氏狷羚(Coke Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii。) Lelwel Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel。 Western Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus major。 Swayne Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei。 Tora Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus tora。

    另外,亦有發現部份亞種互相交配混種所生的品種:

    Kenya Highland Hartebeest:是由Lelwel Hartebeest與柯氏狷羚混種而生。 Neumann Hartebeest:於伊索匹亞發現,是Lelwel Hartebeest與Swayne Hartebeest混種所生。

    除了以上的亞種外,部份學者把利氏麋羚(Lichtenstein's Hartebeest)分類為狷羚的一個亞種,並以Alcelaphus lichtensteinii命名。

    轉角牛羚屬中,有兩個品種亦被稱為狷羚的:

    鄂氏牛羚(Korrigum或稱Senegal Hartebeest,其學名為Damaliscus lunatus korrigum。) Tiang (Tiang Hartebeest),其學名為Damaliscus lunatus tiang。
    사슴영양: Brief Summary ( Korean )
    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

    사슴영양 또는 하테비스트(Bangweulu tsessebe, 학명: Damaliscus superstes)는 우제목/경우제목 소과에 속하는 영양의 일종이다. 아프리카 초원에 서식하는 영양의 일종으로 1766년 팔라스(Peter Simon Pallas)가 처음 기술했다. 다 자랐을 때 어깨 높이는 1m 정도이다. 수컷 몸무게는 125~218kg이며 암컷은 수컷보다 약간 가볍다. 털 색깔은 서부하테비스트의 연한 갈색부터 스웨인하테비스트의 거의 검은색까지 아종에 따라서 다양한 색깔을 띤다. 암수 모두 47~70cm 길이의 뿔을 갖고 있으며, 아종에 따라서 형태가 아주 다양하다. 하테비스트의 수명은 야생에서 11~20년, 사육 상태에서 최대 19년이다. 하테비스트는 20마리에서 300마리까지 떼어 지어 생활하는 사회적 동물이다. 평상시에는 일반적으로 조용하지만 자극을 받으면 난폭해지기도 한다.

Comprehensive Description

    Alcelaphus buselaphus ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español
    Symbol question.svg
    Alcélafo Alcelaphus buselaphus, Ngorongoro, Tanzania.jpgEstado de conservaciónPreocupación menor (LC)
    Preocupación menor (UICN 3.1)[1]TaxonomíaReino: AnimaliaFilo: ChordataClase: MammaliaOrden: ArtiodactylaFamilia: BovidaeSubfamilia: AlcelaphinaeGénero: AlcelaphusEspecie: A. buselaphus
    Pallas, 1766Distribución  src=Subespecies
    Véase el texto

    El alcélafo o búbalo común (Alcelaphus buselaphus) es una especie de mamífero artiodáctilo de la subfamilia Alcelaphinae. En algunos casos también se les denomina erróneamente ñu rojo.[cita requerida]

    El alcelafo está relacionado con los damaliscos, el ñu y el antílope de Hunter. Existen evidencias que hacen suponer que el alcelafo fue domesticado por los antiguos egipcios y fue utilizado como animal para sacrificios.[2][3]

    Descripción[editar]

    Con un largo entre 1,5 a 2,4 m, una altura a la cruz de 1,2 a 1,5 m y un peso entre los 120 a 200 kg es este un antílope de gran tamaño. Se caracterizan por tener las patas delanteras notablemente más largas que las traseras, a la manera de las jirafas, de forma que su cabeza sobresale sobre las hierbas altas de las sabana. Sus cabezas son muy largas y estrechas, y poseen grandes glándulas bajo sus ojos. Ambos sexos poseen cuernos anillados que llegan a medir hasta 70 cm y que nacen sobre sus alargadas frentes. Esto contribuye a su aspecto estrambótico. Los machos son de color marrón oscuro, mientras que las hembras son de un marrón más claro.

    Las varias subespecies se distinguen entre sí por el color de su pelaje, el cual varía desde un marrón oscuro a un gris amarronado, y por la forma de sus cornamentas. Todas las subespecies tienen cuernos en ambos sexos.

    Hábitos[editar]

    Los alcelafos son antílopes muy rápidos y resistentes; prefieren las hierbas secas y ralas, y una dieta escasa en agua. Al igual que otras especies de la sabana, suelen asociarse con las cebras y los ñues para detectar a sus predadores. Son de hábitos diurnos y ocupan la mañana y el atardecer pastando. Los rebaños contienen entre cinco a veinte individuos y ocasionalmente se han visto grupos de hasta 350 individuos.

    Distribución y hábitat[editar]

    El alcelafo, inicialmente habitaba en las llanuras a través del continente africano (Walker 1997). Se los encontraba desde Marruecos hasta el noreste de Tanzania y, al sur del Congo, desde la zona sur de Angola hasta Sudáfrica. Sin embargo el hombre ha reducido su hábitat en forma drástica, mediante su caza, destrucción de su hábitat y competencia con el ganado doméstico por las pasturas. Hoy en día el alcefalo mora solo en partes de Botsuana, Namibia, Etiopía, Tanzania y Kenia.

    Habita en la sabana y pastizales de África. Tolera bien la zona de pastizales altos y también se lo encuentra en bosquecillos y zonas de arbustos en mayor medida que otros alcelafos.[3]

    Reproducción[editar]

    Alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 12 meses, pero alcanzan su peso máximo a la edad de 4 años. El período de gestación dura de 214 a 242 días.[4]​ La hembra pare una única cría, una vez por año.[2]

    Alimentación[editar]

    Los alcelafos se alimentan prácticamente en forma exclusiva de pasto.[3]​ Un gran porcentaje de su alimentación durante la temporada húmeda (octubre a mayo) es pasto, el cual nunca representa menos del 80% de su dieta.[5]​ El alcefalo es excepcionalmente tolerante a la comida de baja calidad, lo cual probablemente se debe a las características de su masticación. Por lo tanto durante la temporada seca, cuando se ve limitada la disponibilidad de pasturas suculentas puede alimentarse de los pastos más duros.[6]

    Subespecies[editar]

     src=
    Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus (Zoológico de Londres, 1895).

    Se admiten seis subespecies de Alcelaphus buselaphus:[7]

    Una séptima subespecie, Alcelaphus buselaphus caama, es considerada ahora una especie independiente (Alcelaphus caama).[7]

    Véase también[editar]

    Referencias[editar]

    1. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). «'Alcelaphus buselaphus'». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2010.3 (en inglés). Consultado el 14 de octubre de 2010.
    2. a b Kingdon, A. (1989). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa Volume III Part D (Bovids). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    3. a b c http://www.awf.org/animals/hartebst.html "African Wildlife Foundation"
    4. Hanák, Vladimír y Mazák, Vratislav (1991). Enciclopedia de los Animales, Mamíferos de todo el Mundo. Madrid: Susaeta. pp. 304-305. ISBN 84-305-1967-X.
    5. Schuette, J., D. Leslie Jr., R. Lochmiller, J. Jenks. (1998). Diets of Hartebeest and Roan Antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the Long-Faced Hypothesis. Journal of Mammalogy, 79 (2): 426-436.
    6. Murray, M. June (1993). Compariative nutrition of wildebeest, hartebeest and topi in the Serengeti. African Journal of Ecology, 31 (2): 172-177.
    7. a b Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed).

    Enlaces externos[editar]

     title=
    Alcelaphus buselaphus ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français
    image illustrant les bovidés
    Cet article est une ébauche concernant les bovidés.

    Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

    Le bubale roux (Alcelaphus buselaphus) est un bovidé du genre Alcelaphus.

    Répartition

    Ce bubale était à l'origine présent un peu partout sur le continent africain. On le trouve encore au Botswana, en Namibie, en Éthiopie, en Tanzanie et au Kenya[1].

    Description

    Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la bienvenue ! Comment faire ?
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    Bubale roux, dans le Parc national du Serengeti, Tanzanie.
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    Bubale roux (Parc transfrontalier de Kgalagadi, Afrique du Sud
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    Bubale roux (Parc national de Mokala, Afrique du Sud

    Écologie

    Très rapide à la course, le bubale peut courir de 75 km/h en moyenne et jusqu'à 90 km/h en pointe, pour échapper à ses prédateurs.[réf. souhaitée] Il fait partie des antilopes les plus rapides.

    Conservation

    Le bubale roux est un animal qui supporte mal la captivité. On le trouve donc rarement dans les élevages ou les zoos. Il fait concurrence aux troupeaux domestiqués lorsqu'il broute l'herbe locale. Sa chasse est organisée couramment comme une attraction touristique promettant de beaux trophées et une viande savoureuse aux amateurs de safari. Cependant cette activité humaine a considérablement fait diminuer les populations[1].

    Notes et références

    1. a et b (en) Référence Animal Diversity Web : Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Alcelaphus buselaphus ( Vietnamese )
    provided by wikipedia VI

    Alcelaphus buselaphus là một loài động vật có vú trong họ Bovidae, bộ Artiodactyla. Loài này được Pallas mô tả năm 1766.[2]

    Hình ảnh

    Chú thích

    1. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). Alcelaphus buselaphus. 2008 Sách đỏ IUCN. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế 2008. Truy cập ngày 11 tháng 2 năm 2009.
    2. ^ a ă Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. biên tập (2005). “Alcelaphus buselaphus”. Mammal Species of the World . Baltimore: Nhà in Đại học Johns Hopkins, 2 tập (2.142 trang). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
    3. ^ a ă Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (ấn bản 3). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. tr. 674. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.

    Tham khảo

    Liên kết ngoài

     src= Phương tiện liên quan tới Alcelaphus buselaphus tại Wikimedia Commons


    Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết về chủ đề Bộ Guốc chẵn này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
    Alcelaphus buselaphus ( Portuguese )
    provided by wikipedia PT
    Nome binomial Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Pallas, 1766

    A vaca-do-mato, cujo nome científico é Alcelaphus buselaphus, é uma espécie de antílope africano.[1][2][3]

    A espécie tem oito variedades (subespécies), duas das quais até pouco tempo atrás eram consideradas espécies separadas: a caama (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama, antes Alcelaphus caama) e a gondonga (Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteinii, antes Alcelaphus lichtensteinii).[4]

    A vaca-do-mato (Alcelaphus buselaphus) tem uma coloração amarronzada, focinho comprido e chifres com anéis em relevo presentes nos dois sexos.

    É conhecida pelo nome inglês de hartebeest, e, na Guiné-Bissau, pelo nome em crioulo da Guiné-Bissau tancon.[5]

    Referência

    1. «Alcelaphus buselaphus (Hartebeest)». www.iucnredlist.org. Consultado em 21 de outubro de 2016
    2. Tropical, Lisbon (Portugal) Instituto de Medicina (1950). Anais. [S.l.: s.n.]
    3. «Definição de 'vaca-do-mato' no Dicionário Estraviz». estraviz.org. Consultado em 29 de novembro de 2017
    4. «Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lichtensteinii (Lichtenstein's Hartebeest)». www.iucnredlist.org. Consultado em 21 de outubro de 2016
    5. Mensário administrativo. [S.l.]: Centro de Informação e Turismo de Angola. 1955
    Bawolec krowi ( Polish )
    provided by wikipedia POL
    Commons Multimedia w Wikimedia Commons
     src=
    Bawolce w Parku Narodowym Etosha

    Bawolec krowi[3], dawniej także: bawolec[4][5], antylopa krowia[4] (Alcelaphus buselaphus) – gatunek dużego ssaka z rodziny wołowatych[6].

    Nazwa zwyczajowa

    We wcześniejszej polskiej literaturze zoologicznej dla określenia gatunku używana była nazwa zwyczajowa bawolec[4][5], antylopa krowia[4]. Ostatecznie w wydanej w 2015 roku przez Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk publikacji „Polskie nazewnictwo ssaków świata” nazwę bawolec przypisano rodzajowi Alcelaphusa gatunkowi nadano oznaczenie bawolec krowi[3].

    Występowanie

    Pierwotnie Afryka Środkowa i Południowa. Zasięg występowania bawolca został drastycznie ograniczony na skutek polowań, niszczenia siedlisk i wypierania przez rolnictwo (hodowla zwierząt). Obecnie spotykany jest wyłącznie w Botswanie, Namibii, Etiopii, Ugandzie,Tanzanii i Kenii[7]. Zasiedla sawanny i stepy na terenach równinnych i górzystych.

    Charakterystyka

    Bawolec krowi należy do największych przedstawicieli podrodziny Alcelaphinae. Osiąga długość ciała od 150-245 cm i masę 75-200 kg. Długość ogona wynosi 30-70 cm, a wysokość w kłębie od 1,1-1,5 m. Samice są nieznacznie mniejsze od samców. Skóra bawolców pokryta jest długimi do 25 mm włosami, a ich głowa wąska i wydłużona. Ubarwienie, w zależności od podgatunku, od jasno- do szaro-brązowego. Przedstawiciele obojga płci posiadają lirowato, lub łukowato wygięte rogi o długości od 45-70 cm. Dojrzałość płciową osiągają ok. 1 roku życia. Po ciąży trwającej 214-242 dni samica rodzi jedno młode. Bawolce krowie żyją od 11 do 20 lat.

    Są zwierzętami społecznymi. Tworzą zorganizowane stada, które mogą się składać z 300 osobników.

    Rogi tych zwierząt różnią się nieznacznie w zależności od podgatunku, jednak wszystkie są ciężkie i charakterystycznie wykrzywione. Służą głównie do walk o terytorium oraz do obrony przed drapieżnikami. Powstają bardzo wcześnie i występują u obu płci. Zwierzęta te mają bardzo umięśnione odnóża. W przypadku ucieczki potrafią rozpędzić się do 80 km/h.

    Ekologia

    Bawolce krowie są zwierzętami tworzącymi duże stada osiągające nawet do 300 osobników. Samica w ciągu jednej ciąży wydaje na świat jedno młode. Okres godowy jest zależny od miejsca występowania danego osobnika. Ciąża trwa od 214 do 242 dni. Młode niezależnie od płci zostaje z matką do 3 lat od urodzenia lecz najczęściej odłącza się od niej znacznie wcześniej. Młode samce dołączają do dorosłych samców by pilnować terytorium. Samice natomiast towarzyszą matce najczęściej do momentu, aż same będą w stanie wydać potomstwo. Samce Alcelaphus buselaphus bywają bardzo agresywne, zwłaszcza kiedy dochodzi do wejścia innego samca na ich terytorium. Odbywają się wtedy walki na rogi. Podobne zachowanie dostrzeżono u samic, dotyczyło jednak ono obrony własnego potomstwa.

    Bawolce krowie są zwierzętami roślinożernymi. Ich głównym pożywieniem są trawy, przy czym są one różne w zależności od pory roku. W ciągu pory deszczowej głównym składnikiem ich pożywienia są trawy Andropogon, w mniejszym stopniu trawy Hyparrhenia i rośliny strączkowe. W czasie pory suchej, kiedy pożywienia jest mniej, są zdolne do jedzenia roślinności suchej i starzejącej się.

    Znaczenie dla gospodarki

    Zwierzęta te zabijane są dla pozyskiwania mięsa i rogów. W niektórych krajach takie polowania są uznawane jako atrakcja turystyczna, w której każdy za odpowiednią opłatą może wziąć udział. Bawolce są zwierzętami, które ciężko spotkać w zoo ze względu na ich agresywną naturę.

    Podgatunki

    Wyróżniono kilka podgatunków, m.in.: kongoni i tora[6]. Niektóre czasem klasyfikowane są jako odrębne gatunki (kama i konzi).

    Podgatunek Kategoria zagrożenia Alcelaphus buselaphus major LC[8] Alcelaphus buselaphus tora – tora CR[9] Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel EN[10] Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus EX[11] Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei EN[12] Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii (lub cokei) – kongoni LC[13]

    Zagrożenia i ochrona

    W 1996 Alcelaphus buselaphus został wpisany do Czerwonej Księgi IUCN w kategorii LC[2] (najmniejszej troski).

    Przypisy

    1. Alcelaphus buselaphus, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
    2. a b Alcelaphus buselaphus. Czerwona księga gatunków zagrożonych (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (ang.).
    3. a b Włodzimierz Cichocki, Agnieszka Ważna, Jan Cichocki, Ewa Rajska, Artur Jasiński, Wiesław Bogdanowicz: Polskie nazewnictwo ssaków świata. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2015, s. 297. ISBN 978-83-88147-15-9.
    4. a b c d Kazimierz Kowalski (redaktor naukowy), Adam Krzanowski, Henryk Kubiak, G. Rzebik-Kowalska, L. Sych: Mały słownik zoologiczny: Ssaki. Wyd. IV. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna, 1991. ISBN 83-214-0637-8.
    5. a b Zygmunt Kraczkiewicz: SSAKI. Wrocław: Polskie Towarzystwo Zoologiczne - Komisja Nazewnictwa Zwierząt Kręgowych, 1968, s. 81, seria: Polskie nazewnictwo zoologiczne.
    6. a b Wilson Don E. & Reeder DeeAnn M. (red.) Alcelaphus buselaphus. w: Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (Wyd. 3.) [on-line]. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. (ang.) [dostęp 13 czerwca 2010]
    7. K. Batty: Alcelaphus buselaphus (ang.). Animal Diversity Web. [dostęp 28 lipca 2007].
    8. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. major [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).
    9. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. tora [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).
    10. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lelwel [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).
    11. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. buselaphus [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).
    12. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. swaynei [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).
    13. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. cokii [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online] [dostęp 2010-06-13] (ang.).

    Bibliografia

    1. Komosińska Halina, Podsiadło Elżbieta: Ssaki kopytne. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2002. ISBN 83-01-13806-8.
    2. K. Batty: Alcelaphus buselaphus (ang.). Animal Diversity Web. [dostęp 28 lipca 2007].
    3. Kingdon A.1989. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa Volume III Part D (Bovids).Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    4. Schuette, J., D., Leslie, Jr., R., Lochmiller, J., Jenks. 1998. Diets of Hartebeest and Roan Antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the Long-Faced Hypothesis. Journal of Mammalogy, 79 (2): 426-436.
    Buvolec stepní ( Czech )
    provided by wikipedia CZ

    Buvolec stepní (Alcelaphus buselaphus) je velká antilopa, která obývá rozsáhlé travnaté savany i polopouště Západní, Východní a Jižní Afriky, je jediným druhem monotypického rodu (Alcelaphus).

    Popis

     src=
    Buvolci stepní v Národním parku Etosha.

    Buvolec není na pohled právě elegantní zvíře, působí vychrtlým dojmem a hřbet se mu výrazně svažuje od svalnatých plecí k nepoměrně útlé a nízké zádi. Krk je dlouhý a tenký, hlava úzká, protáhlá s hrbolem na temeni. Poměrně silné a dlouhé, výrazně prohnuté rohy nosí obě pohlaví. Samci je mají obyčejně delší a silnější, mohou měřit až 70 cm. Délka a tvar rohů u jednotlivých poddruhů se poněkud liší. Zbarvení kolísá od čokoládově hnědé (buvolec Swayneův), přes červenohnědou (buvolec káma) až po pískově žlutou (b. lelwel, b. Cockův), samci mívají většinou poněkud tmavší zbarvení než samice a mláďata. Břicho má většina poddruhů buvolce světlejší, nejčastěji světle žluté, méně častěji bílé. U některých poddruhů (buvolec Swayneův, b. káma) se objevuje na kýtách, plecích, hlavě a někdy i na bocích černá nebo tmavohnědá kresba. Zadní končetiny bývají světlejší než přední. Oči jsou tmavě hnědé, poměrně malé a stíněné dlouhými řasami. Ocas měří 45-70 cm a podobá se ocasu skotu, je ukončen štětkou černých chlupů. Délka těla se pohybuje od 1,7 až do 2,4 m, hmotnost 120-200 kg a výška v kohoutku 125-145 cm. Nejmenší je buvolec tora, největší b. kanki (západoafrický).

    Způsob života

    Skupiny buvolců stepních obývají travnaté pláně subsaharské Afriky. Stáda jsou poměrně malá, jsou to spíše rodinné tlupy, čítající obvykle 5-30 jedinců. Tvoří je jeden samec s několika samicemi a jejich mláďaty. Samec na svou rodinu často dohlíží z vyvýšeného místa, nejčastěji z vrcholku termitiště. Výjimkou nejsou ani skupiny o 70 a více kusech. Často se pasou i ve smíšených stádech se zebrami, pštrosy nebo gazelami, přičemž pro svou ochranu využívají vynikajícího čichu zeber a zraku pštrosů. Buvolci mají denní aktivitu. Buvolec se vyznačuje mimořádnou skromností. Živí se především travinami, přičemž mohou spásat i uschlou trávu a tvrdá stébla, jimiž ostatní býložravci opovrhují. Příležitostně spásají i listy, zejména z akácií. Buvolci stepní dokáží vydržet dlouhou dobu bez vody, ale pokud mají možnost, rádi se napijí a válí se ve vodě. S chutí také olizují sůl.

    Predátoři

    Buvolec není příliš oblíbenou potravou šelem. Příležitostně ho loví lvi, hyeny a psi hyenovití. Buvolci jsou velmi rychlí a vytrvalí běžci, v běhu dovedou změnit směr, aniž by museli snížit rychlost. V případě potřeby se také dovedou účinně bránit rohy.

    Rozmnožování

    Námluvy probíhají zpravidla na konci období dešťů, samci při nich obhajují svá teritoria a bojují o samice. Souboje jsou velmi urputné, samci se přetlačují krky a rohy, často v kleče. Mnohdy při nich dojde ke zlomení rohu, ale vážná zranění častá nejsou. Samci se do sebe někdy rohy natolik zaklesnou, že s mohou uvolnit pouze za cenu zlomení rohu.Březost u buvolců stepních trvá 8 měsíců a samice rodí jediné mládě. To zůstává v rodinné tlupě celé tři roky. Poté mláďata matku opouští a sdružují se do samostatných stád, tzv. mládeneckých.

     src=
    rozšíření poddruhů

    Poddruhy

    V roce 1996 byl buvolec stepní zapsán do Červeného seznamu IUCN v kategorii LR/cd (lower risk/conservation dependent - druh, který je závislý na ochraně).[2]

    U buvolce stepního rozeznáváme několik poddruhů. Z toho je dominantní poddruh, buvolec severoafrický, již vyhuben a dva (buvolec Swaynův a buvolec tora) jsou v důsledku chorob, lovu i ničení přirozených stanovišť ohroženy.

    Poddruh Stupeň ohrožení Rozšíření Stručný popis Buvolec kanki (západoafrický) (Alcelaphus buselaphus major) LR/cd [3] Západní Afrika od Senegalu po Čad. Největší, světle zbarvený poddruh, rohy zepředu připomínají písmeno U. Buvolec tora (Alcelaphus buselaphus tora) EN [4] Súdán a severní Etiopie. Malý, tmavě hnědý poddruh, rohy široké, zepředu se podobají ležaté složené závorce. Buvolec lelwel (Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel) LR/cd [5] Čad, Středoafrická republika, jižní Súdán, oblast Velkých jezer Středně velký, žlutorezavý poddruh s nápadně protáhlou hlavou. Rohy mají zepředu tvar písmene V. Drobnější buvolci z Ugandy a oblasti Velkých jezer někdy bývají vyčleněni jako samostatný poddruh buvolec Jacksonův (A. b. jacksoni). Buvolec severoafrický (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus) EX [6] Pobřeží Alžírska, Tuniska a Maroka, v historické době také Egypt a Palestina. V současnosti vyhuben, měl hustou světlou srst a rohy ve tvaru písmene U. Buvolec korkaj (Swayneův) (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) EN [7] Východní Etiopie, severní Somálsko. Malý poddruh, rohy mají zepředu tvar ležaté složené závorky. Čokoládově hnědý s černými znaky na čele, kýtách a plecích. Buvolec kongoni (Cokův) (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii) (nebo cokei) LR/cd [8] Keňa a Tanzanie, Serengeti. Malý, pískově zbarvený se světlým břichem. Rohy podobné jako u buvolce tora, ale sevřenější. Buvolec káma (Alcelaphus (buselaphus) caama) LR/cd [9] Jihoafrická republika, Botswana, Namibie. Velký, rezavohnědý s černými znaky na hlavě, plecích a kýtách. Rohy mají odpředu tvar V. Někdy bývá klasifikován jako samostatný druh (Alcelapus caama). Buvolec nkonzi (Lichtensteinův) (Alcelaphus (buselaphus) lichtensteini) dříve (Sigmoceros lichtensteini) LR/cd [10] Kongo, Mozambik, Zambie, jižní Tanzanie. Středně velký, pískově zbarvený se světlým břichem. Rohy silně zahnuté, zepředu vytvářejí tvar kruhu nebo srdce. Někdy bývá vyčleňován jako samostatný druh (Alcelaphus lichtensteinii.

    Odkazy

    Reference

    1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-09]
    2. https://web.archive.org/web/http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/811/all
    3. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. major. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    4. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. tora. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    5. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus spp. lelwel. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    6. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. buselaphus. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    7. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. swaynei. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    8. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. cokii. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    9. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. caama. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
    10. Antelope Specialist Group 1996. Alcelaphus lichtensteini. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Literatura

    Externí odkazy

    Búbal ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    El búbal (Alcelaphus buselaphus) és un antílop que viu als herbassars de l'Àfrica Occidental, Oriental i Meridional. És una de les tres espècies classificades al gènere Alcelaphus.[1]

    El búbal fa gairebé 1,5 m d'alçada a l'espatlla i pot pesar entre 120 i 200 quilograms. Els mascles tenen un color marró fosc, mentre que les femelles són d'un marró groguenc. Ambdós sexes tenen banyes que poden assolir una mida de fins a 70 cm. Els búbals viuen en herbassars i boscos oberts, on s'alimenten d'herba. Són animals diürns i es passen el matí i el final de la tarda menjant. Els ramats contenen entre cinc i vint individus, però a vegades en poden contenir fins a 350.

    Referències

     src= A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Búbal Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata
    1. Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3a edició), Johns Hopkins University Press, 2, 142 p. Disponible en línia


    Hartebeest
    provided by wikipedia
    African grassland antelope
    "Kongoni" redirects here. For the GNU/Linux distribution, see Kongoni (operating system).

    The hartebeest (/ˈhɑːrtəˌbst/;[3] Alcelaphus buselaphus), also known as kongoni, is an African antelope. Eight subspecies have been described, including two sometimes considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m (3.3 ft) at the shoulder, and has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm (79 to 98 in). The weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg (220 to 440 lb). It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck, and pointed ears. Its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is generally short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the sandy brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swayne's hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender. Horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm (18–28 in). Apart from its long face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes.

    Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals. They are very alert and non-aggressive. They are primarily grazers, with their diets consisting mainly of grasses. Mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year with one or two peaks, and depends upon the subspecies and local factors. Both males and females reach sexual maturity at one to two years of age. Gestation is eight to nine months long, after which a single calf is born. Births usually peak in the dry season. The lifespan is 12 to 15 years.

    Inhabiting dry savannas and wooded grasslands, hartebeest often move to more arid places after rainfall. They have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The hartebeest was formerly widespread in Africa, but populations have undergone drastic decline due to habitat destruction, hunting, human settlement, and competition with livestock for food. Each of the eight subspecies of the hartebeest has a different conservation status. The Bubal hartebeest was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1994. While the populations of the red hartebeest are on the rise, those of the Tora hartebeest, already Critically Endangered, are falling. The hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Egypt, Lesotho, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, and Tunisia; but has been introduced into Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a popular game animal due to its highly regarded meat.

    Etymology

    The vernacular name "hartebeest" could have originated from the obsolete Afrikaans word hertebeest,[4] literally deer beast.[3] The name was given by the Boers, based on the resemblance of the antelope to deer.[5] The first use of the word "hartebeest" in South African literature was in Dutch colonial administrator Jan van Riebeeck's journal Daghregister in 1660. He wrote: "Meester Pieter ein hart-beest geschooten hadde (Master Pieter [van Meerhoff] had shot one hartebeest)".[6] Another name for the hartebeest is kongoni,[7] a Swahili word.[8] Kongoni is often used to refer in particular to one of its subspeciesCoke's hartebeest.[9]

    Taxonomy

    The scientific name of the hartebeest is Alcelaphus buselaphus. First described by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766, it is classified in the genus Alcelaphus and placed in the family Bovidae.[2] In 1979, palaeontologist Elisabeth Vrba supported Sigmoceros as a separate genus for Lichtenstein's hartebeest, a kind of hartebeest, as she assumed it was related to Connochaetes (wildebeest).[10][11] She had analysed the skull characters of living and extinct species of antelope to make a cladogram, and argued that a wide skull linked Lichtenstein's hartebeest with Connochaetes.[12] However, this finding was not replicated by Alan W. Gentry of the Natural History Museum, who classified it as an independent species of Alcelaphus.[13] Zoologists such as Jonathan Kingdon and Theodor Haltenorth considered it to be a subspecies of A. buselaphus.[2] Vrba dissolved the new genus in 1997 after reconsideration.[14] An MtDNA analysis could find no evidence to support a separate genus for Lichtenstein's hartebeest. It also showed the tribe Alcelaphini to be monophyletic, and discovered close affinity between the Alcelaphus and the sassabies (genus Damaliscus)—both genetically and morphologically.[15]

    Subspecies

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    Hartebeest subspecies: Bubal hartebeest (centre); (clockwise from top-left corner) red hartebeest, Lelwel hartebeest, Swayne's hartebeest, western hartebeest, Neumann's hartebeest, Lichtenstein's hartebeest, Coke's hartebeest and Tora hartebeest, from Great and Small Game of Africa

    Eight subspecies are identified, of which two – A. b. caama and A. b. lichtensteinii – have been considered to be independent species. However, a 1999 genetic study by P. Arctander of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues, which sampled the control region of the mitochondrial DNA, found that these two formed a clade within A. buselaphus, and that recognising these as species would render A. buselaphus paraphyletic (an unnatural grouping). The same study found A. b. major to be the most divergent, having branched off before the lineage split to give a combined caama/lichtensteinii lineage and another that gave rise to the remaining extant subspecies.[16] Conversely a 2001 phylogenetic study, based on D–loop and cytochrome b analysis by Øystein Flagstad (of the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim) and colleagues, found that the southern lineage of A. b. caama and A. lichtensteinii diverged earliest.[11] Analysis of skull structure supports partition into three major divisions: A. b. buselaphus division (nominate, also including A. b. major division), A. b. tora division (also including A. b. cokii and A. b. swaynei) and A. b. lelwel division.[2] Another analysis of cytochrome b and D-loop sequence data shows a notable affinity between the A. b. lelwel and A. b. tora divisions.[17]

    The eight subspecies, including the two controversial ones, are:[1][18]

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    Five hartebeest subspecies
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    Bubal hartebeest
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    Red hartebeest
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    Coke's hartebeest
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    Lichtenstein's hartebeest
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    Swayne's hartebeest

    Genetics and hybrids

    In 2000, a study scrutinised two major populations of the Swayne's hartebeest, from the Senkele Wildlife Sanctuary and the Nechisar National Park, for mitochondrial (D-loop) and nuclear (microsatellite) variability in an attempt to estimate the levels of genetic variation between the populations and within the subspecies. The results showed a remarkable differentiation between the two populations; that from the Senkele Wildlife Sanctuary showed more genetic diversity than the one from the Nechisar National Park. Another revelation was that the translocation of the individuals from the Senkele Wildlife Sanctuary in 1974 had not made a significant contribution to the gene pool of the Nechisar National Park. Additionally, the Swayne hartebeest populations were compared with a large red hartebeest population, and both subspecies were found to have a high degree of genetic variation. The study advocated in situ conservation of the Swayne's hartebeest and a renewed attempt at its translocation in order to conserve genetic diversity and increase its population size in both the protected areas.[17]

    The diploid number of chromosomes in the hartebeest is 40. Hybrids are usually reported from areas where ranges of two subspecies overlap.[7] Hybrids between the Lelwel and Tora hartebeest have been reported in eastern Sudan and western Ethiopia, in a stretch southward from the Blue Nile to about 9° N latitude.[28] A study proved a male hybrid of the red hartebeest and the blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus) to be sterile. Sterility of the hybrid was attributed to difficulties in segregation during meiosis, indicated by azoospermia and a low number of germ cells in its seminiferous tubules.[29]

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    Jackson's hartebeest

    There are three common cross-breeds between the subspecies:

    • Alcelaphus lelwel x cokii: Known as the Kenya Highland hartebeest or the Laikipia hartebeest. It is a cross between the Lelwel and Coke's hartebeest.[30] This hybrid is lighter in colour and larger than Coke's hartebeest. It is a light buff with reddish-tawny upper parts, and the head is longer than in Coke's hartebeest. Both sexes have horns, which are heavier as well as longer than those of the parents. It was formerly distributed throughout the western Kenyan highlands, between Lake Victoria and Mount Kenya, but is now believed to be restricted to the Lambwe Valley (south-west Kenya) and Laikipia and nearby regions of west-central Kenya.[31][32]
    • Alcelaphus lelwel x swaynei : Also known as the Neumann's hartebeest, named after traveller and hunter Arthur Henry Neumann.[33] This is considered to be a cross between the Lelwel hartebeest and Swayne's hartebeest.[30] The face is longer than that of the Swayne's hartebeest. The colour of the coat is a golden brown, paler towards the underparts. The chin has a hint of black and the tail ends in a black tuft. Both sexes have longer horns than the Swayne's hartebeest. The horns grow in a wide "V" shape, unlike the wide bracket shape of Swayne's hartebeest and the narrow "V" of Lelwel hartebeest, curving backward and slightly inward. It occurs in Ethiopia, in a small area to the east of Omo River and north of Lake Turkana, stretching north-east of Lake Chew Bahir to near Lake Chamo.[34]
    • The Jackson's hartebeest does not have a clear taxonomic status. It is regarded as a hybrid between the Lelwel and Coke's hartebeest. The African Antelope Database (1998) treats it as synonymous to the Lelwel hartebeest.[19] From Lake Baringo to Mount Kenya, the Jackson's hartebeest significantly resembles the Lelwel hartebeest, whereas from Lake Victoria to the southern part of the Rift Valley it tends to be more like the Coke's hartebeest.[33]

    Evolution

    The genus Alcelaphus emerged about 4.4 million years ago in a clade whose other members were Damalops, Numidocapra, Rabaticeras, Megalotragus, Oreonagor, and Connochaetes. An analysis using phylogeographic patterns within hartebeest populations suggested a possible origin of Alcelaphus in eastern Africa.[35] Alcelaphus quickly radiated across the African savannas, replacing several previous forms (such as a relative of the hirola). Flagstad and colleagues showed an early split in the hartebeest populations into two distinct lineages around 0.5 million years ago – one to the north and the other to the south of the equator. The northern lineage further diverged into eastern and western lineages, nearly 0.4 million years ago, most probably as a result of the expanding central African rainforest belt and subsequent contraction of savannah habitats during a period of global warming. The eastern lineage gave rise to the Coke's, Swayne's, Tora and Lelwel hartebeest; and from the western lineage evolved the Bubal and western hartebeest. The southern lineage gave rise to Lichtenstein's and red hartebeest. These two taxa are phylogenetically close, having diverged only 0.2 million years ago. The study concluded that these major events throughout the hartebeest's evolution are strongly related to climatic factors, and that there had been successive bursts of radiation from a more permanent population—a refugium—in eastern Africa; this could be vital to understanding the evolutionary history of not only the hartebeest but also other mammals of the African savanna.[11]

    The earliest fossil record dates back to nearly 0.7 million years ago.[7] Fossils of the red hartebeest have been found in Elandsfontein, Cornelia (Free State) and Florisbad in South Africa, as well as in Kabwe in Zambia.[36] In Israel, hartebeest remains have been found in northern Negev, Shephelah, Sharon Plain and Tel Lachish. This population of the hartebeest was originally limited to the open country of the southernmost regions of the southern Levant. It was probably hunted in Egypt, which affected the numbers in the Levant, and disconnected it from its main population in Africa.[37]

    Description

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    A red hartebeest showing the dark face, black tail, white rump and V-shaped horns

    A large antelope with a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m (3.3 ft) at the shoulder, and has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm (79 to 98 in). The weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg (220 to 440 lb). The tail, 40 to 60 cm (16 to 24 in) long, ends in a black tuft.[38] The other distinctive features of the hartebeest are its long legs (often with black markings), short neck, and pointed ears.[39] A study correlated the size of hartebeest species to habitat productivity and rainfall.[40] The western hartebeest is the largest subspecies, and has a characteristic white line between the eyes.[41] The red hartebeest is also large, with a black forehead and a contrasting light band between the eyes.[42] The large Lelwel hartebeest has dark stripes on the front of its legs.[28] Coke's hartebeest is moderately large, with a shorter forehead and longer tail in comparison to the other subspecies.[43] Lichtenstein's hartebeest is smaller, with dark stripes on the front of the legs, as in the Lelwel hartebeest.[44] The Swayne's hartebeest is smaller than the Tora hartebeest, but both have a shorter forehead and similar appearance.[45]

    Generally short and shiny, the coat varies in colour according to subspecies.[46] The western hartebeest is a pale sandy-brown, but the front of the legs are darker.[41] The red hartebeest is a reddish-brown, with a dark face. Black markings can be observed on the chin, the back of the neck, shoulders, hips and legs; these are in sharp contrast with the broad white patches that mark its flanks and lower rump.[42][47] The Lelwel hartebeest is a reddish tan.[28] Coke's hartebeest is reddish to tawny in the upper parts, but has relatively lighter legs and rump.[43] Lichtenstein's hartebeest is reddish brown, though the flanks are a lighter tan and the rump whitish.[44] The Tora hartebeest is a dark reddish brown in the upper part of the body, the face, the forelegs and the rump, but the hindlegs and the underbelly are a yellowish white.[27][48] The Swayne's hartebeest is a rich chocolate brown with fine spots of white that are actually the white tips of its hairs. Its face is black save for the chocolate band below the eyes. The shoulders and upper part of the legs are black.[45] Fine textured, the body hair of the hartebeest is about 25 mm (1 in) long.[10] The hartebeest has preorbital glands (glands near the eyes) with a central duct, that secrete a dark sticky fluid in Coke's and Lichtenstein's hartebeest, and a colourless fluid in the Lelwel hartebeest.[46]

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    A close head-shot of a red hartebeest

    Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender. Horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm (18–28 in); the maximum horn length is 74.9 cm (29.5 in), recorded from a Namibian red hartebeest.[38] The horns of the western hartebeest are thick and appear U-shaped from the front and Z-shaped from the sides, growing backward at first and then forward, ending with a sharp backward turn.[41] The horns of the red and the Lelwel hartebeest are similar to those of the western hartebeest, but appear V-shaped when viewed from the front.[28][42] The Lichtenstein's hartebeest has thick parallel ringed horns, with a flat base. Its horns are shorter than those of other subspecies, curving upward then sharply forward, followed by an inward turn at an angle of about 45° and a final backward turn.[44] The horns of Swayne's hartebeest are thin and shaped like parentheses, curving upward and then backward.[45] The horns of the Tora hartebeest are particularly thin and spread out sideways, diverging more than in any other subspecies.[48]

    Apart from its long face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes.[4] The hartebeest shares several physical traits with the sassabies (genus Damaliscus), such as an elongated and narrow face, the shape of the horns, the pelage texture and colour, and the terminal tuft of the tail. The wildebeest have more specialised skull and horn features than the hartebeest.[46] The hartebeest exhibits sexual dimorphism, but only slightly, as both sexes bear horns and have similar body masses. The degree of sexual dimorphism varies by subspecies. Males are 8% heavier than females in Swayne's and Lichtenstein's hartebeest, and 23% heavier in the red hartebeest. In one study, the highest dimorphism was found in skull weight.[49] Another study concluded that the length of the breeding season is a good predictor of dimorphism in pedicle (the bony structures from which the horns grow) height and skull weight, and the best predictor of the horn circumference.[50]

    Ecology and behaviour

    Active mainly during daytime, the hartebeest grazes in the early morning and late afternoon, and rests in shade around noon. Gregarious, the species forms herds of up to 300 individuals. Larger numbers gather in places with abundant grass. In 1963, a congregation of 10,000 animals was recorded on the plains near Sekoma Pan in Botswana.[46] However, moving herds are not so cohesive, and tend to disperse frequently. The members of a herd can be divided into four groups: territorial adult males, non-territorial adult males, young males, and the females with their young. The females form groups of five to 12 animals, with four generations of young in the group. Females fight for dominance over the herd.[38] Sparring between males and females is common.[7] At three or four years of age, the males can attempt to take over a territory and its female members. A resident male defends his territory and will fight if provoked.[49] The male marks the border of his territory through defecation.[38]

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    A herd of hartebeest

    Hartebeest are remarkably alert and cautious animals with highly developed brains.[51][52] Generally calm in nature, hartebeest can be ferocious when provoked. While feeding, one individual stays on the lookout for danger, often standing on a termite mound to see farther. At times of danger, the whole herd flees in a single file after an individual suddenly starts off.[38] Adult hartebeest are preyed upon by lions, leopards, hyenas and wild dogs; cheetahs and jackals target juveniles.[38] Crocodiles may also prey on hartebeest.[53]

    The thin long legs of the hartebeest provide for a quick escape in an open habitat; if attacked, the formidable horns are used to ward off the predator. The elevated position of the eyes enables the hartebeest to inspect its surroundings continuously even as it is grazing. The muzzle has evolved so as to derive maximum nutrition from even a frugal diet.[7] The horns are also used during fights among males for dominance in the breeding season;[50] the clash of the horns is loud enough that it can be heard from hundreds of metres away.[7] The beginning of a fight is marked with a series of head movements and stances, as well as depositing droppings on dung piles. The opponents drop onto their knees and, after giving a hammer-like blow, begin wrestling, their horns interlocking. One attempts to fling the head of the other to one side to stab the neck and shoulders with his horns.[49] Fights are rarely serious, but can be fatal if they are.[46]

    Like the sassabies, hartebeest produce quiet quacking and grunting sounds. Juveniles tend to be more vocal than adults, and produce a quacking call when alarmed or pursued.[38] The hartebeest uses defecation as an olfactory and visual display.[46] Herds are generally sedentary, and tend to migrate only under adverse conditions such as natural calamities.[54] The hartebeest is the least migratory in the tribe Alcelaphini (which also includes wildebeest and sassabies), and also consumes the least amount of water and has the lowest metabolic rate among the members of the tribe.[46]

    Parasites and diseases

    Several parasites have been isolated from the hartebeest.[55][56] These parasites regularly alternate between hartebeest and gazelles or wildebeest.[57] Hartebeest can be infected with theileriosis due to Rhipicephalus evertsi and Theileria species.[58] South of the Sahara, common parasites include Loewioestrus variolosus, Gedoelstia cristata and G. hassleri. The latter two species can cause serious diseases such as encephalitis.[59] However, parasites are not always harmful – 252 larvae were found in the head of one Zambian individual without any pathogenicity.[56] Nematodes, cestodes, paramphistomes; and the roundworm Setaria labiatopapillosa have also been isolated from the hartebeest.[60][61] In 1931, a red hartebeest in Gobabis (southwestern Africa) was infected with long, thin worms. These were named Longistrongylus meyeri after their collector, T. Meyer.[62]

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    Hartebeest feed primarily on grasses.

    Diet

    Hartebeest are primarily grazers, and their diets consist mostly of grasses.[63] A study in the Nazinga Game Ranch in Burkina Faso found that the hartebeest's skull structure eased the acquisition and chewing of highly fibrous foods.[64] The hartebeest has much lower food intake than the other members of Alcelaphini. The long thin muzzle of the hartebeest assists in feeding on leaf blades of short grasses and nibbling off leaf sheaths from grass stems. In addition to this, it can derive nutritious food even from tall senile grasses. These adaptations of the hartebeest enable the animal to feed well even in the dry season, which is usually a difficult period for grazers.[7] For instance, in comparison with the roan antelope, the hartebeest is better at procuring and chewing the scarce regrowth of perennial grasses at times when forage is least available.[64] These unique abilities could have allowed the hartebeest to prevail over other animals millions of years ago, leading to its successful radiation in Africa.[7]

    Grasses generally comprise at least 80 percent of the hartebeest's diet, but they account for over 95 percent of their food in the wet season, October to May. Jasminum kerstingii is part of the hartebeest's diet at the start of the rainy season. Between seasons, they mainly feed on the culms of grasses.[64] A study found that the hartebeest is able to digest a higher proportion of food than the topi and the wildebeest.[65] In areas with scarce water, it can survive on melons, roots, and tubers.[46]

    In a study of grass selectivity among the wildebeest, zebra, and the Coke's hartebeest, the hartebeest showed the highest selectivity. All animals preferred Themeda triandra over Pennisetum mezianum and Digitaria macroblephara. More grass species were eaten in the dry season than in the wet season.[66]

    Reproduction

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    Two red hartebeest juveniles in a grassland

    Mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year, with one or two peaks that can be influenced by the availability of food.[63] Both males and females reach sexual maturity at one to two years of age. Reproduction varies by the subspecies and local factors.[10] Mating takes place in the territories defended by a single male, mostly in open areas.[63] The males may fight fiercely for dominance,[49] following which the dominant male smells the female's genitalia, and follows her if she is in oestrus. Sometimes a female in oestrus holds out her tail slightly to signal her receptivity,[46] and the male tries to block the female's way. She may eventually stand still and allow the male to mount her. Copulation is brief and is often repeated, sometimes twice or more in a minute.[46] Any intruder at this time is chased away.[38] In large herds, females often mate with several males.[46]

    Gestation is eight to nine months long, after which a single calf weighing about 9 kg (20 lb) is born. Births usually peak in the dry season, and take place in thickets – unlike the wildebeest, which give birth in groups on the plains.[46] Though calves can move about on their own shortly after birth, they usually lie in the open in close proximity of their mothers.[30] The calf is weaned at four months,[30] but young males stay with their mothers for two and a half years, longer than in other Alcelaphini.[46] Often the mortality rate of male juveniles is high, as they have to face the aggression of territorial adult males and are also deprived of good forage by them.[38] The lifespan is 12 to 15 years.[63]

    Habitat

    Hartebeest inhabit dry savannas, open plains and wooded grasslands,[10] often moving into more arid places after rainfall. They are more tolerant of wooded areas than other Alcelaphini, and are often found on the edge of woodlands.[63] They have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m (13,000 ft).[1] The red hartebeest is known to move across large areas, and females roam home ranges of over 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi), with male territories 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in size.[67] Females in the Nairobi National Park (Kenya) have individual home ranges stretching over 3.7–5.5 km2 (1.4–2.1 sq mi), which are not particularly associated with any one female group. Average female home ranges are large enough to include 20 to 30 male territories.[39]

    Status and conservation

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    Coke's hartebeest in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania
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    Red hartebeest in Etosha National Park, Namibia
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    Western hartebeest in Pendjari National Park, Benin

    Each hartebeest subspecies is listed under a different conservation status by the IUCN. The species as a whole is classified as Least Concern by the IUCN.[1] The hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Egypt, Lesotho, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, and Tunisia.[1]

    Relationship with humans

    Hartebeest are popular game and trophy animals as they are prominently visible and hence easy to hunt.[38][63] Pictorial as well as epigraphic evidence from Egypt suggests that in the Upper Palaeolithic age, Egyptians hunted hartebeest and domesticated them. The hartebeest was a prominent source of meat,[77] but its economic significance was lower than that of gazelles and other desert species.[48] However, from the beginning of the Neolithic age, hunting became less common and consequently the remains of the hartebeest from this period in Egypt, where it is now extinct, are rare.[77]

    In a study on the effect of place and sex on carcass characteristics, the average carcass weight of the male red hartebeest was 79.3 kg (175 lb) and that of females was 56 kg (123 lb). The meat of the animals from Qua-Qua region had the highest lipid content—1.3 g (0.046 oz) per 100 g (3.5 oz) of meat. Negligible differences were found in the concentrations of individual fatty acids, amino acids, and minerals. The study considered hartebeest meat to be healthy, as the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids was 0.78, slightly more than the recommended 0.7.[78]

    References

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    12. ^ Vrba, E. S. (1979). "Phylogenetic analysis and classification of fossil and recent Alcelaphini Mammalia: Bovidae". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 11 (3): 207–28. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1979.tb00035.x.
    13. ^ Gentry, A. W. (2012). "Evolution and dispersal of African Bovidae". In Bubenik, G. A.; Bubenik, A. B. Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers: Evolution, Morphology, Physiology, and Social Significance. New York, USA: Springer. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4613-8966-8.
    14. ^ Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-4214-0093-8.
    15. ^ Matthee, C. A.; Robinson, T. J. (1999). "Cytochrome b phylogeny of the family Bovidae: Resolution within the Alcelaphini, Antilopini, Neotragini, and Tragelaphini". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 12 (1): 31–46. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0573. PMID 10222159.
    16. ^ Arctander, P.; Johansen, C.; Coutellec-Vreto, M. A. (1999). "Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini)". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 16 (12): 1724–39. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026085. PMID 10605114.
    17. ^ a b Flagstad, Ø.; Syvertsen, P. O.; Stenseth, N. C.; Stacy, J. E.; Olsaker, I.; Røed, K. H.; Jakobsen, K. S. (2000). "Genetic variability in Swayne's hartebeest, an endangered antelope of Ethiopia". Conservation Biology. 14 (1): 254–64. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98339.x.
    18. ^ "Alcelaphus buselaphus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
    19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n East, R.; IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group (1999). African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: The IUCN Species Survival Commission. pp. 186–93. ISBN 978-2-8317-0477-7.
    20. ^ a b IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 January 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    21. ^ Mallon, D. P.; Kingswood, S. C. (2001). Antelopes: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. p. 25. ISBN 978-2-8317-0594-1.
    22. ^ a b IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus caama". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 January 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    23. ^ a b IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 January 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    24. ^ Rafferty, J. P. (2010). Grazers (1st ed.). New York, USA: Britannica Educational Publications. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-61530-465-3.
    25. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 January 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    26. ^ a b Lewis, J. G.; Wilson, R. T. (1977). "The plight of Swayne's hartebeest". Oryx. 13 (5): 491–4. doi:10.1017/S0030605300014551.
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    30. ^ a b c d Castelló, J. R. (2016). Bovids of the World: Antelopes, Gazelles, Cattle, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press. pp. 537–9. ISBN 978-0-691-16717-6.
    31. ^ Augustine, D. J.; Veblen, K. E.; Goheen, J. R.; Riginos, C.; Young, T. P. (2011). "Pathways for positive cattle–wildlife interactions in semiarid rangelands". In Georgiadis, N. J. Conserving Wildlife in African Landscapes: Kenya's Ewaso Ecosystem (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 632. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. pp. 55–71.
    32. ^ "Kenya Highland Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
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    34. ^ "Neumann Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
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    37. ^ Tsahar, E.; Izhaki, I.; Lev-Yadun, S.; Bar-Oz, G.; Hansen, D. M. (2009). "Distribution and extinction of ungulates during the Holocene of the southern Levant". PLoS ONE. 4 (4): 5316–28. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5316T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005316. PMC 2670510. PMID 19401760. open access publication – free to read
    38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kingdon, J. (1989). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Volume 3, Part D: Bovids. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-43725-5.
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    40. ^ Capellini, I.; Gosling, L. M. (2007). "Habitat primary production and the evolution of body size within the hartebeest clade". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 92 (3): 431–40. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00883.x.
    41. ^ a b c "Western Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
    42. ^ a b c "Cape or Red Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
    43. ^ a b "Coke Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
    44. ^ a b c "Lichtenstein Hartebeest". Big Game Hunting Records – Safari Club International Online Record Book. Safari Club International. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
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    46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley, USA: University of California Press. pp. 133–42. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0.
    47. ^ Firestone, M. (2009). Watching Wildlife: Southern Africa; South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia (2nd ed.). Footscray, Australia: Lonely Planet. pp. 228–9. ISBN 978-1-74104-210-8.
    48. ^ a b c Heckel, J. O. (2007). "The present status of the hartebeest subspecies with special focus on north-east Africa and the Tora hartebeest" (PDF). Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority: 1–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
    49. ^ a b c d Capellini, I. (2007). "Dimorphism in the hartebeest". In Fairbairn, D. J.; Blanckenhorn, W. U.; Székely, T. Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism. London, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 124–32. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0014. ISBN 978-0-19-954558-2.
    50. ^ a b Capellini, I.; Gosling, L. M. (2006). "The evolution of fighting structures in hartebeest" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research. 8: 997–1011.
    51. ^ Oboussier, H. (1970). "Information on Alcelaphini (Bovidae-Mammalia) with special reference to the brain and hypophysis. Results of research trips through Africa (1959–1967)". Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 114 (3): 393–435. PMID 5523305.
    52. ^ Schaller, G. B. (1976). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. pp. 461–5. ISBN 978-0-226-73640-2.
    53. ^ Eltringham, S. K. (1979). The Ecology and Conservation of Large African Mammals (1st ed.). London, UK: MacMillan. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-333-23580-5.
    54. ^ Verlinden, A. (1998). "Seasonal movement patterns of some ungulates in the Kalahari ecosystem of Botswana between 1990 and 1995". African Journal of Ecology. 36 (2): 117–28. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2028.1998.00112.x (inactive 2018-09-11).
    55. ^ Boomker, J.; Horak, I. G.; De Vos, V. (1986). "The helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some South African nature reserves". The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 53 (2): 93–102. PMID 3725333.
    56. ^ a b Howard, G. W. (1977). "Prevalence of nasal bots (Diptera: Oestridiae) in some Zambian hartebeest". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 13 (4): 400–4. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-13.4.400. PMID 24228960.
    57. ^ Pester, F. R. N.; Laurence, B. R. (2009). "The parasite load of some African game animals". Journal of Zoology. 174 (3): 397–406. Bibcode:2010JZoo..281..263G. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1974.tb03167.x.
    58. ^ Spitalska, E.; Riddell, M.; Heyne, H.; Sparagano, O.A. (2005). "Prevalence of theileriosis in red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) in Namibia". Parasitology Research. 97 (1): 77–9. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-1390-y. ISSN 1432-1955. PMID 15986252.
    59. ^ Spinage, C. A. (2012). African Ecology: Benchmarks and Historical Perspectives. Berlin, Germany: Springer. p. 1176. ISBN 978-3-642-22872-8.
    60. ^ Belem, A. M. G.; Bakoné, É. U. (2009). "Parasites gastro-intestinaux d'antilopes et de buffles (Syncerus caffer brachyceros) du ranch de gibier de Nazinga au Burkina Faso" [Gastro-intestinal parasites of antelopes and buffaloes (Syncerus caffer brachyceros) from the Nazinga game ranch in Burkina Faso]. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (in French). 13 (4): 493–8. ISSN 1370-6233. open access publication – free to read
    61. ^ Hoberg, E. P.; Abrams, A.; Pilitt, P. A. (2009). "Robustostrongylus aferensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in kob (Kobus kob) and hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni) (Artiodactyla) from sub-Saharan Africa, with further ruminations on the Ostertagiinae". The Journal of Parasitology. 95 (3): 702–17. doi:10.1645/ge-1859.1. PMID 19228080. Archived from the original on 2017-09-24. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
    62. ^ Le Roux, P. L. (1931). "On Longistrongylus meyeri gen. and sp. nov., a trichostrongyle parasitizing the Red Hartebeest Bubalis caama". Journal of Helminthology. 9 (3): 141. doi:10.1017/S0022149X00030376.
    63. ^ a b c d e f "Hartebeest". African Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
    64. ^ a b c Schuette, J. R.; Leslie, D. M.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Jenks, J. A. (1998). "Diets of hartebeest and Roan antelope in Burkina Faso: Support of the long-faced hypothesis". Journal of Mammalogy. 79 (2): 426–36. Bibcode:2007JMamm..88..275L. doi:10.2307/1382973. JSTOR 1382973.
    65. ^ Murray, M. G. (1993). "Comparative nutrition of wildebeest, hartebeest and topi in the Serengeti". African Journal of Ecology. 31 (2): 172–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1993.tb00530.x.
    66. ^ Casebeer, R. L.; Koss, G. G. (1970). "Food habits of wildebeest, zebra, hartebeest and cattle in Kenya Masailand". African Journal of Ecology. 8 (1): 25–36. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1970.tb00827.x.
    67. ^ a b Mills, G.; Hes, L. (1997). The Complete Book of Southern African Mammals. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-947430-55-9.
    68. ^ Yadav, P. R. (2004). Vanishing and Endangered Species. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-81-7141-776-6.
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    70. ^ Harper, F. (1945). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World. New York, USA: American Committee for International Wildlife Protection. pp. 642–8.
    71. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 February 2016.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    72. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 April 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    73. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus tora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 January 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    74. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 April 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    75. ^ Datiko, D.; Bekele, A. (2011). "Population status and human impact on the endangered Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nechisar Plains, Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia". African Journal of Ecology. 49 (3): 311–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01266.x.
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    77. ^ a b Van Neer, W.; Linseele, V.; Friedman, R. F. (2004). "Animal burials and food offerings at the elite cemetery HK6 of Hierakonpolis". In Hendrickx, S.; Friedman, R; Ciałowicz, K.; Chłodnicki, M. Egypt at its Origins: Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. 138. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-90-429-1469-8.
    78. ^ Hoffman, L. C.; Smit, K.; Muller, N. (2010). "Chemical characteristics of red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) meat". South African Journal of Animal Science. 40 (3): 221–8. doi:10.4314/sajas.v40i3.6.

    Hartebeest ( Swedish )
    provided by wikipedia SV
     src=
    Hartebeest i Namibia

    Hartebeest eller koantilop (Alcelaphus buselaphus) hör till de större, kraftigt byggda antiloperna. Namnet kommer från språket Afrikaans och betyder "hjortdjur (hert/hart) djur (beest) ".

    Kännetecken

    Hartebeeste utmärker sig genom att kroppen sluttar från den oformligt höga bogen ned emot länden och att huvudet är starkt förlängt, samt med de i form av en lyra vridna hornen. Hornen finns hos båda könen. Denna antilop är ungefär 2 meter lång och 130 centimeter hög. Vikten kan nå 200 kilogram. Kroppsfärgen är ljust rödbrun och pannan mörkbrun. Två svarta band går på fram- och bakbenen. Horn förekommer hos bägge kön. Hornen har en gemensam bas och påminner i utseende om en lyra.

    Utbredning och habitat

    Hartebeesten förekom tidigare på savanner över hela Afrika men idag finns bara några områden med populationer kvar. I Europas djurparker lyckades några djur att fortplantat sig. Arten saknas bara i de allra sydöstligaste delar av Afrika där den ersättas av den närbesläktade arten Lichtensteins hartebeest (Alcelaphus lichtensteinii).

    Levnadssätt

    Koantilopen är aktiv på dagen och lever i flockar. Trots att främre och bakre extremiteter har olika längd kan den under flykten springa med upp till 80 km/t. Som hos flera andra antiloper är flockarna uppdelad efter kön. Honor och deras ungdjur lever i flockar med i genomsnitt 300 individer. Ibland är flockarna mycket större, särskilt i Serengeti nationalparken där det finns 18 000 hartebeest. Andra grupper med omkring 100 individer bildas av unga hannar. När hannarna är fyra år gamla lever de ensamma och etablerar ett revir där de tar kontroll över alla honor. Åtta år gamla hannar mister sitt territorium på grund av svaghet och undviker efteråt kontakt med andra koantiloper. Livslängden uppgår ibland till 20 år men de flesta dör innan de blir tio år gamla.

    Födan utgörs huvudsakligen av gräs men de äter även örter och blad från buskar. Om möjligt dricker de regelbundet men de kan klara sig längre tider utan vatten.

    Underarter

    Alcelaphus buselaphus caama

    Denna underart lever i södra Afrika och är geografisk skild från de andra underarterna. Den har en kännetecknande rödbrun pälsfärg. Dessutom finns svarta teckningar i ansiktet och vid benen. Underarten var nästan utrotad men efter inrättningen av olika nationalparker har den återhämtad sig. Wilson & Reeder (2005) listar den sydafrikanska koantilopen som självständig art, Alcelaphus caama.

    Nordliga underarter

    Flera av dessa underarter listades tidigare som självständiga arter:

    • A. b. buselaphus, underarten levde norr om Sahara i Marocko och Egypten. Den dog ut under 1920-talet på grund av intensiv jakt.
    • A. b. major, i västafrikanska savanner.
    • A. b. tora, förekommer i Etiopien och Eritrea och listas av IUCN som stark hotad.
    • A. b. swaynei, lever i Somalia och i angränsande regioner av Etiopien, listas likaså som stark hotad.
    • A. b. lelwel, i Tchad, Kongo-Kinshasa och Uganda.
    • A. b. cokii, förekommer i Kenya och Tanzania. Underarten har den största populationen.

    Referenser

    Den här artikeln är helt eller delvis baserad på material från tyskspråkiga Wikipedia, 7 oktober 2008.
    Small Sketch of Owl.pngDen här artikeln är helt eller delvis baserad på material från Nordisk familjebok, Antiloper (Kamal), 1904–1926.

    Noter

    1. ^ Alcelaphus buselaphus på IUCN:s rödlista, auktor: Antelope Specialist Group (2008), besökt 22 november 2008.

    Tryckta källor

    Externa länkar

    Hartenbeest ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    Het hartenbeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is een grote, algemene antilope uit de Afrikaanse grasvlakten. De naam "hartebeest" is aan het dier gegeven door de Boeren, die het dier vonden lijken op een hert.

    Kenmerken

    Het hartenbeest is een grote antilope met een korte nek, een lang smal gezicht en grote gepunte oren. De rug loopt schuin af, doordat de schouders hoger liggen dan de achterzijde. De vacht is zandkleurig geel tot donkerbruin van kleur, lichter op de achterzijde. De kleur kan echter verschillen per ondersoort. De buik en romp is wittig van kleur. De staart is middellang met zwarte haren aan het uiteinde. Beide geslachten hebben hoorns. Deze zijn sikkelvormig en diep geringd. Ze kunnen 45 tot 83 centimeter lang worden. De hoorns van het vrouwtje zijn kleiner en smaller.

    Het hartenbeest heeft een kop-romplengte van 160 tot 215 centimeter, een staartlengte van 30 tot 70 centimeter en een schouderhoogte van 107 tot 150 centimeter. Vrouwtjes wegen 116 tot 185 kilogram, mannetjes 125 tot 218 kilogram.

    Verspreiding en leefgebied

    Het hartenbeest leeft in open, droge graslanden en savannes. Vroeger kwam hij in bijna alle grasvlakten en savannes van Afrika voor, maar de soort is tegenwoordig uitgestorven in Noord-Afrika. Hij leeft zowel op vlakten als in heuvelachtig gebied, zowel in open gebied als in meer beboste en met struiken begroeide gebieden.

    Leefwijze

    Het hartenbeest is voornamelijk 's ochtends, laat in de middag en 's avonds actief. Op het heetst van de dag zoeken ze de schaduw op. Hij leeft voornamelijk van grassen en kruiden. Bladeren vormen een klein onderdeel van het dieet. Als water aanwezig is, drinkt hij iedere dag, maar hij kan in de droge tijd overleven op het vocht uit zijn voedsel.

    Hij leeft in kudden die soms uit duizenden dieren kunnen bestaan. Vooral in de droge tijd leeft hij in grote groepen. Ze leven vaak samen met andere grote hoefdieren. Oude mannetjes leven solitair in een territorium, jonge mannetjes zonder territorium leven in vrijgezellengroepen. In sommige gebieden hebben mannetjes het gehele jaar door een vast territorium, in andere gebieden hebben mannetjes enkel in de bronsttijd een territorium, en leven de dieren de rest van de tijd in vrijgezellengroepen. Een territorium wordt afgebakend met mest. In de bronsttijd vechten de mannetjes hevig, waarbij soms doden kunnen vallen, voornamelijk als dieren in hoge dichtheden leven.

    Voortplanting

    Één kalf wordt geboren na een draagtijd van acht maanden. De moeder verdedigt haar jong fel tegen predatoren. Sommige dieren zijn al na een jaar geslachtsrijp, anderen pas na vier jaar. Het hartenbeest wordt tot negentien jaar oud.

    Ondersoorten

    Er zijn zeven ondersoorten. Het verspreidingsgebied van sommige van deze ondersoorten overlappen, en in deze overlappingszones komen hybrides voor, die soms als aparte ondersoorten worden gezien. Soms wordt ook Lichtensteins hartenbeest (Alcelaphus lichtensteini) als een ondersoort van het hartenbeest gezien, maar meestal wordt dit beschouwd als een aparte soort.

    Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 22.5 years (captivity) Observations: One wild born animal was about 22-23 years when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
    Punalehmäantilooppi ( Finnish )
    provided by wikipedia FI

    Punalehmäantilooppi eli lehmäantilooppi (Alcelaphus buselaphus) on afrikkalainen lehmäantilooppien alaheimoon kuuluva sorkkaeläin.

    Nisäkäsnimistötoimikunta ehdotti vuonna 2008 lajille uutta suomenkielistä nimeä kongoni.[2]

    Ulkonäkö ja koko

    Punalehmäantiloopin säkäkorkeus on 1,1–1,5 metriä. Uros on tummanruskea, naaras kellanruskea.

    Alalajit

    Punalehmäantiloopilla on kuusi alalajia, joista yksi on kuollut sukupuuttoon.[3] Myös kontsiantilooppi (Alcelaphus lichtensteinii) ja kaama-antilooppi (Alcelaphus caama) on toisinaan luokiteltu punalehmäantiloopin alalajeiksi,[1] mutta nykyisin ne katsotaan yleensä omiksi lajeikseen.[3]

    Alalajit:[3][4][5]

    Levinneisyys ja elinympäristö

    Punalehmäantiloopit elävät ruohosavanneilla ja pärjäävät pitkänkin heinän keskellä. Lajia tavattiin aiemmin laajoilla alueilla Afrikassa, mutta nykyisin sitä on jäljellä enää osissa Botswanaa, Namibiaa, Etiopiaa, Tansaniaa ja Keniaa.[6] Sukupuuttoon kuolleen pohjanpunalehmäantiloopin levinneisyys ulottui pohjoisessa mahdollisesti Palestiinaan saakka[7].

    Lähteet

    1. a b IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group: Alcelaphus buselaphus IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. 2016. International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Iucnredlist.org. Viitattu 26.2.2018. (englanniksi)
    2. Nisäkäsnimistötoimikunta: Maailman nisäkkäiden suomenkieliset nimet (vahvistamaton ehdotus nisäkkäiden nimiksi) koivu.luomus.fi. 2008. Viitattu 26.2.2018.
    3. a b c Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (toim.): Alcelaphus Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed). 2005. Johns Hopkins University Press. Viitattu 13.2.2012. (englanniksi)
    4. Nurminen, Matti (toim.): Maailman eläimet: Nisäkkäät 2, s. 131. (Englanninkielinen alkuteos The Encyclopedia of Mammals 2, sarjassa World of animals). Helsinki: Tammi, 1987. ISBN 951-30-6531-6. (alalajien suomenkielisten nimien lähde)
    5. Palmén, Ernst & Nurminen, Matti (toim.): Eläinten maailma, Otavan iso eläintietosanakirja. 2. Iilimato–Leopardit, s. 804. Helsinki: Otava, 1974. ISBN 951-1-01422-6. (alalajien suomenkielisten nimien lähde)
    6. Batty, K.: Alcelaphus buselaphus (hartebeest) Animal Diversity Web. 2002. Viitattu 26.2.2018. (englanniksi)
    7. Koivisto, Ilkka; Sarvala, Maija; Liukko, Ulla-Maija (toim.): Maailman uhanalaiset eläimet 3. Nisäkkäät, Matelijat, s. 200. Weilin+Göös, 1991. ISBN 951-35-4689-6.
    Конгони ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
    Царство: Животные
    Подцарство: Эуметазои
    Без ранга: Вторичноротые
    Подтип: Позвоночные
    Инфратип: Челюстноротые
    Надкласс: Четвероногие
    Подкласс: Звери
    Инфракласс: Плацентарные
    Надотряд: Лавразиотерии
    Подотряд: Жвачные
    Семейство: Полорогие
    Подсемейство: Бубалы
    Род: Конгони
    Вид: Конгони
    Международное научное название

    Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)

    Дочерние таксоны
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus caama
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus major
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus tora
    Ареал

    изображение

    Охранный статус Wikispecies-logo.svg
    Систематика
    на Викивидах
    Commons-logo.svg
    Изображения
    на Викискладе
    ITIS 625077NCBI 59517EOL 308529FW 149623

    Конго́ни[1][2][3][4], или обыкновенный бубал[1][3], или коровья антилопа[3], или степной бубал[5] (лат. Alcelaphus buselaphus) — вид антилоп семейства полорогих подсемейства бубалов (Alcelphinae).

    Внешность

    Длина тела у этого крупного вида составляет 2 м, высота в холке около 130 см, а вес достигает почти 200 кг. Шерсть в зависимости от подвида имеет окраску от светло-серой до красно-коричневой. Характерен чёрный рисунок в посередине длинной морды и на ногах. Рога, присущие обоим полам, которые вследствие этого трудноразличимы, растут из общей основы и выгибаются в форме полумесяца наружу и наверх. Их длина достигает 70 см.

    Ареал

    Ранее конгони были широко распространены в засушливых саваннах Африки, от Средиземного моря до мыса Доброй Надежды. Согласно легендам, они встречались и в Палестине, однако доказательств этому пока нет. На юге Восточной Африки конгони отсутствуют, вместо них там водится бубал Лихтенштейна. В наши дни конгони истреблены в большей части своего первоначального ареала.

    Образ жизни

     src=
    Бегущее стадо конгони

    Конгони активны в дневное время и живут в стадах. Хотя их походка из-за различной длины передних и задних ног выглядит несколько неуклюже, убегая от хищника эти антилопы могут достигать почти 80 км/ч. Как и у многих других видов стада разделены по половому признаку. Самки и молодняк обитают в стадах, насчитывающих до 300 особей. Эти стада могут быть ещё значительно крупнее, прежде всего в Национальном парке Серенгети, где существует около 18 тысяч конгони.

    Молодые самцы образуют собственные холостяцкие стада, в которых живут около ста особей. В возрасте четырёх лет самцы начинают жить поодиночке в собственном ареале, который они обороняют против соперников, претендуя на всех находящихся в нём самок. В возрасте восьми лет самцы становятся слишком слабы, чтобы побеждать молодых претендентов на их ареал и теряют его. После этого они скитаются в одиночку и пытаются избегать встреч с другими самцами.

    Продолжительность жизни может достигать двадцать лет, однако лишь немногие особи становятся старше, чем десять лет. Конгони являются типичными травоядными животными, которые однако время от времени питаются также листвой с кустарников. По возможности они стараются регулярно пить, однако могут выживать долгое время без воды.

    Угрозы

    Засухи и болезни могут быстро сократить популяцию конгони, особенно если в наличии конкуренция со стороны других стад антилоп. В некоторых местностях угрозу составляет интенсивная охота.

    Подвиды

    Южноафриканские конгони

     src=
    Южноафриканский конгони

    Каама[1][2] (A. b. caama) — географически отделены от других подвидов. Между обеими популяциями обитает родственный конгони бубал Лихтенштейна, выделяемый иногда в отдельный род Sigmoceros. Южноафриканские конгони отличаются красно-коричневой шерстью, а также чёрными рисунками на морде и ногах. Они были почти истреблены, однако смогли выжить в заповедниках и с тех пор встречаются чаще. Wilson и Reeder (2005) классифицируют южноафриканских конгони как отдельный вид Alcelaphus caama.

    Северные подвиды

    Многие подвиды ранее рассматривались как отдельные виды:

    • Североафриканский конгони A. b. buselaphus — истреблён в 1920-х годах в результате интенсивной охоты. Был распространён к северу от Сахары от Марокко до Египта;
    • Западноафриканский конгони A. b. major — распространён в саваннах Западной Африки;
    • Конгони тора[2][4] (A. b. tora) — распространён в Эфиопии и Эритрее, оценивается МСОП как состоящий под серьёзной угрозой
    • Конгони Свайне[2][4] (A. b. swaynei) — также весьма угрожаемый подвид. Однажды обитал в Сомали, сегодня разрозненные популяции в эфиопско-сомалийском пограничье
    • Лелвел[1] (A. b. lelwel) — встречается в Чаде, Конго и Уганде
    • Конгони A. b. cokii — живёт в саваннах Кении и Танзании. Является наиболее распространённым подвидом, давшим виду своё название.

    Примечания

    1. 1 2 3 4 Жизнь животных. Том 7. Млекопитающие / под ред. В. Е. Соколова. — 2-е изд. — М.: Просвещение, 1989. — С. 474. — 558 с. — ISBN 5-09-001434-5
    2. 1 2 3 4 Фишер Д., Саймон Н., Винсент Д. Красная книга. Дикая природа в опасности / пер. с англ., под ред. А. Г. Банникова. — М.: Прогресс, 1976. — С. 208—209. — 478 с.
    3. 1 2 3 Соколов В. Е. Пятиязычный словарь названий животных. Млекопитающие. Латинский, русский, английский, немецкий, французский. / под общей редакцией акад. В. Е. Соколова. — М.: Рус. яз., 1984. — С. 128. — 10 000 экз.
    4. 1 2 3 Соколов В. Е. Редкие и исчезающие животные. Млекопитающие : Справ. пособие. — М. : Высшая школа, 1986. — С. 409—410. — 519 с., [24] л. ил. — 100 000 экз.
    5. Бубал степной // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона : в 86 т. (82 т. и 4 доп.). — СПб., 1890—1907.
    Конгоні ( Ukrainian )
    provided by wikipedia UK
    Список
    • A. b. buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)
      * A. b. cokii (Günther, 1884)
      * A. b. lelwel (Heuglin, 1877)
      * A. b. major (Blyth, 1869)
      * A. b. swaynei (P. L. Sclater, 1892)
      * A. b. tora (Gray, 1873)
      * A. b. caama (Saint-Hilaire, 1803)
      * A. b. lichtensteinii (Peters, 1849)
    Синоніми * Antilope bubalis (Pallas, 1767)
    • Antilope buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)
    • Bubalis buselaphus (Lichtenstein, 1814)
    Посилання Commons-logo.svg Вікісховище: Alcelaphus buselaphus Wikispecies-logo.svg Віківиди: Alcelaphus buselaphus EOL logo.svg EOL: 308529 ITIS logo.svg ITIS: 625077 IUCN logo.svg МСОП: 811 US-NLM-NCBI-Logo.svg NCBI: 59517 Fossilworks: 149623

    Конгоні (Alcelaphus buselaphus) — вид парнокопитних ссавців родини бикових (Bovidae).

    Поширення

    У минулому конгоні зустрічалися по всій Африці (за винятком лісів басейну Конго) і навіть на Аравійському півострові. Зараз підвид, що населяв Сахару і Аравію, вимер. Трохи краще становище конгоні в Південній Африці. В наш час конгоні винищені в більшій частині свого первісного ареалу. У помітних кількостях ця антилопа збереглася тільки в національних парках і резерватах. Конгоні мешкають переважно в безлісих місцевостях, рівнинних або горбистих, порослих чагарником або порівняно відкритих. Це типові мешканці африканської савани.

    Опис

    Довжина тіла становить 2-2,5 м. Висота в холці доходить до 1,3 м. Вага варіюється в межах 100-200 кг. Довжина хвоста 40-60 см. Закінчується чорною китичкою. Ноги довгі з чорними мітками. Шия коротка, вуха загострені, форма голови подовжена. Роги є і у самиць, і у самців. Їх довжина доходить до 70 см.

    Найбільшими є тварини, що живуть на заході африканського континенту. Колір шерсті варіюється від світло-сірого до червоно-коричневого залежно від підвиду. У червоного бубала лоб чорний і є контрастна світла смуга між очей. У інших підвидів теж є характерні індивідуальні риси. Це довжина хвоста, темні смуги, більш пологі лоби.

    Спосіб життя

    Живляться тварини трав'янистою рослинністю, часто пасуться на місцях колишніх пожеж. Вони регулярно відвідують водопої, але можуть кілька днів обходитися без води. Великими стадами конгоні зустрічаються рідко: зазвичай можна спостерігати групи по 10-20 тварин. Самиці і самці тримаються окремо.

    Шлюбний ритуал відрізняється від інших антилоп. Зазвичай самець, піднявши хвіст, витягнувши вперед шию і притиснувши вуха, спрямовується назустріч самиці, яка перейшла межі його ділянки, потім повертається і робить кілька кроків геть, до центру ділянки, як би запрошуючи самицю слідувати за собою. Якщо самиця скористається запрошенням, партнери стають парою. Вагітність триває близько 8 місяців, а пологи збігаються з початком сезону дощів. Самиця народжує щороку одне дитинча.

    Загрози

    Конгоні часто стають жертвою левів, гієнових собак та інших хижаків, проте головний їхній ворог - людина. М'ясо конгоні за смаком значно перевершує м'ясо більшості африканських копитних, і переслідування конгоні мисливцями завжди було досить інтенсивним. Судячи з давніх фресок, єгиптяни тримали конгоні північноафриканської підвиду як напівдомашню тварину.

    Засухи і хвороби можуть швидко скоротити популяцію конгоні, особливо якщо є конкуренція з боку інших стад антилоп.

    Примітки

    1. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). Alcelaphus buselaphus: інформація на сайті МСОП (англ.) 11 February 2009

    Література

    • Chris & Tilde Stuart: Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Afrika. Struik, 2000, ISBN 1-86872-534-0
    • Jean Dorst и Pierre Dandelot: Säugetiere Afrikas, Paul Parey Verlag, 1970. ISBN 3-490-01018-3
    • Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder (Hrsg.): Mammal Species of the World. 3-е издание. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2005, ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.


    ハーテビースト ( Japanese )
    provided by wikipedia 日本語
    ハーテビースト Alcelaphus buselaphus, Ngorongoro, Tanzania.jpg 保全状況評価 LEAST CONCERN
    (IUCN Red List Ver.3.1 (2001))
    Status iucn3.1 LC.svg 分類 : 動物界 Animalia : 脊索動物門 Chordata 亜門 : 脊椎動物亜門 Vertebrata : 哺乳綱 Mammalia : ウシ目(偶蹄目)Artiodactyla : ウシ科 Bovidae 亜科 : ハーテビースト亜科 Alcelaphinae : ハーテビースト属 Alcelaphus : ハーテビースト A. buselaphus 学名 Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766) 英名 Hartebeest 亜種

    ハーテビーストは、哺乳綱ウシ目(偶蹄目)ウシ科ハーテビースト亜科の動物アフリカ大陸各地の草原に生息する。ペーター・ジーモン・パラスによって1766年に初めて記述された。現在までに絶滅したキタハーテビーストを含む8亜種が知られている。[1][2]レイヨウ」の一種で、シカレイヨウ、シカカモシカ(鹿羚羊)とも呼ばれる。

    成体の体高は1メートル強、体長は150~245センチメートル。オスの体重は125~218キログラム、メスの体重は116~185キログラム。体色は、砂色のニシハーテビーストWestern hartebeest)から大部分が黒いスウェインハーテビーストSwayne’s hartebeest)まで、亜種によって様々に異なる。両性とも45~70センチメートルまで成長する角を持ち、形は体色と同様亜種によって大きく異なる。野生環境では11~20年の寿命を持ち、飼育下では19年まで生きる。[3][4]

    ハーテビーストは社会的動物として知られ、20~300頭の群れを形成する。通常は温和であるが刺激されると獰猛になる。イネ科キビ亜科の植物や豆果を餌とする。ハーテビーストは1~2歳で性的な成熟を迎え、8ヶ月の妊娠期を経て1頭の子供を産む。繁殖期は亜種や群によって異なる。[3][5]

    種の保全状況は亜種によって異なり、キタハーテビーストは1994年に国際自然保護連合(IUCN)によって絶滅が宣言された。他のハーテビーストはアフリカ大陸各地に広く分布しているが、生息地の減少・ハンティング・人間入植家畜との餌の奪い合いなどによって個体数は減少傾向にある。現在では、アルジェリアエジプトレソトリビアモロッコソマリアチュニジアでは絶滅したが、スワジランドジンバブエには人為的に導入されている。[1]

    脚注[編集]

    [ヘルプ]
    1. ^ a b IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). Alcelaphus buselaphus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
    2. ^ Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World : A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 674. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
    3. ^ a b Batty, K. "Alcelaphus buselaphus". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
    4. ^ Hartebeest fact file". Wildscreen. Arkive. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    5. ^ Capellini, I. (2007). "Dimorphism in the hartebeest". Sex, Size and Gender Roles: 124–32. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0014. ISBN 978-0-19-920878-4.
     src= ウィキスピーシーズにハーテビーストに関する情報があります。  src= ウィキメディア・コモンズには、ハーテビーストに関連するカテゴリがあります。
     title=
    狷羚 ( Chinese )
    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科
    二名法 Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Pallas, 1766

    狷羚(學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus)是一種生活在草原地帶的羚羊,出沒在西非東非南非等地區。牠也是唯一歸入狷羚属的動物。

    狷羚立高約為1.5,體重約120-200公斤。雄性狷羚為深褐色,雌性則為黃褐色。雄性及雌性狷羚的角的形狀也是先向外曲,再向前,並且向後尖。角的長度可達70厘米。

    狷羚生活在草原或一些灌木林地,以短草為食物。牠們是日間活動,在早上及黃昏時段覓食。族群數目約5-20頭,有些甚至達到350頭的數目。族群由一頭雄性狷羚所帶領,領袖的狷羚是經過打鬥而產生的。

    在狷羚下,有以下7個亞種

    • 北非狷羚(Bubal Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus,已絕種。)
    • 披紅狷羚(Red (Cape) Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus caama。)
    • 柯氏狷羚(Coke Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii。)
    • Lelwel Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel
    • Western Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus major
    • Swayne Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei
    • Tora Hartebeest,學名為Alcelaphus buselaphus tora

    另外,亦有發現部份亞種互相交配混種所生的品種:

    • Kenya Highland Hartebeest:是由Lelwel Hartebeest與柯氏狷羚混種而生。
    • Neumann Hartebeest:於伊索匹亞發現,是Lelwel Hartebeest與Swayne Hartebeest混種所生。

    除了以上的亞種外,部份學者把利氏麋羚(Lichtenstein's Hartebeest)分類為狷羚的一個亞種,並以Alcelaphus lichtensteinii命名。

    轉角牛羚屬中,有兩個品種亦被稱為狷羚的:

    • 鄂氏牛羚(Korrigum或稱Senegal Hartebeest,其學名為Damaliscus lunatus korrigum。)
    • Tiang (Tiang Hartebeest),其學名為Damaliscus lunatus tiang

    參考

    外部連結

     title=
    사슴영양 ( Korean )
    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
    학명 Alcelaphus buselaphus
    Pallas, 1766 아종
    • 본문 참조
    이명 Bubalis buselaphus (Lichtenstein, 1814)

    사슴영양 또는 하테비스트(Bangweulu tsessebe, 학명: Damaliscus superstes)는 우제목/경우제목 소과에 속하는 영양의 일종이다. 아프리카 초원에 서식하는 영양의 일종으로 1766년 팔라스(Peter Simon Pallas)가 처음 기술했다. 다 자랐을 때 어깨 높이는 1m 정도이다. 수컷 몸무게는 125~218kg이며 암컷은 수컷보다 약간 가볍다. 털 색깔은 서부하테비스트의 연한 갈색부터 스웨인하테비스트의 거의 검은색까지 아종에 따라서 다양한 색깔을 띤다. 암수 모두 47~70cm 길이의 뿔을 갖고 있으며, 아종에 따라서 형태가 아주 다양하다. 하테비스트의 수명은 야생에서 11~20년, 사육 상태에서 최대 19년이다. 하테비스트는 20마리에서 300마리까지 떼어 지어 생활하는 사회적 동물이다. 평상시에는 일반적으로 조용하지만 자극을 받으면 난폭해지기도 한다.

    아종

    • Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii (Günther, 1884)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel (Heuglin, 1877)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus major (Blyth, 1869)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei (P. L. Sclater, 1892)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus tora (Gray, 1873)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus caama (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803)
    • Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteinii (Peters, 1849)


Distribution

    Distribution
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    The hartebeest, Alcelaphus buselaphus, was originally found in grasslands throughout the African continent (Walker 1997). It ranged from Morroco to northeastern Tanzania and, south of the Congo, it ranged from southern Angola to South Africa. Its range has been drastically reduced, however, due to hunting by humans, habitat destruction and foraging competition with domestic cattle. Now the hartebeest is found only in parts of Botswana, Namibia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya.

    Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
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    The hartebeest is a large ungulate ranging from 1.5 m to 2.45 m in length. Its tail is 300 to 700 mm and shoulder height is 1.1 to 1.5 m. It is characterized by a steeply sloping back, long legs, large glands below the eyes, a tufted tail, and a long, narrow rostrum. The body hair is about 25mm long and is quite fine in texture. It has paler patches of hair on most of its rump and chest and on parts of its face. It has been suggested that the pale hair on the rump may be presented in attracting mates or to ward off aggressors. There are several subspecies which are distinguished from each other by coat color, which varies from pale brown to brownish gray, and by horn shape. All subspecies have 2 horns, in both sexes, that rise from a single pedicel and are 450 to 700mm in length. Sexual maturity may occur as early as 12 months, but members of this species do not reach their maximum weight until 4 years of age (Kingdon 1989). The hartebeest has a lifespan of 11 to 20 years (Walker 1997; African Wildlife Foundation).

    Range mass: 75 to 200 kg.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: ornamentation

Habitat

    Habitat
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    A. buselaphus inhabits the savannahs and grasslands of Africa. It is tolerant of high grasses and may be found in woodland or scrubs areas more than other alcelaphines (Nowak 1997; Schaller 1972; African Wildlife Foundation).

    Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; scrub forest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
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    Hartebeests are grazers that feed almost entirely on grass (African Wildlife Foundation). Greater than 95% of their food in the wet season (October to May) is grass and grass never comprises any less than 80% of their diet (Schuette 1998). Schuette determined that A. buselaphus in Burkina Faso, West Africa eats primarily Andropogon grass during the rainy season. Between seasons their diet is primarily Culms grass. It eats a small percentage of Hyparrhenia (a grass) and legumes throughout the year. Jasminium kerstingii is also part of its diet at the beginning of the rainy season. The hartebeest is exceptionally tolerant of poor-quality food. Schuette argues that the long rostrum in A. bucelaphus enhances mastication ability and allows it to crop grasses better than other bovids. Thus, when availibility of succulent grasses is limited, as in the dry season, the hartebeest is able to eat the tougher senescent grasses. It has been substantiated elsewhere that A. buselaphus is able to digest a higher percentage of its food than other bovids (Murray 1993).

    Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts

    Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

Behavior

    Behavior
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    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
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    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    20.0 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    19.0 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
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    Breeding in A. buselaphus takes place in territories that are defended by single males, preferably in open areas on plateaus or ridges (African Wildlife Foundation). Territorial males sniff the female's genitalia. If she is estrous, the male follows her around with his ears depressed. He will occasionally position himself laterally to the female and attempt to block her way. Once the female stands still, she allows the male to mount her. Copulation is brief but may be repeated several times. Copulation is always interrupted if another male intrudes. The intruder is usually chased away (Kingdon 1989). Reproduction varies seasonally depending on the population or subspecies of Hartebeest involved. Nowak (1997) reports that there are birth peaks from October to November in South Africa, December to February in Ethiopia, and February to March in Nairobi National Park. Gestation is 214-242 days and usually a single calf is born. Females isolate themselves in scrub areas to give birth (Schaller 1972; African Wildlife Foundation). This is markedly different than the birthing habits of their close relative the wildebeest, which give birth in groups on the open plains. Female A. buselaphus then leave their young hidden in the scrub for a few weeks, coming back only to suckle. Young are weaned at four months (Kingdon 1989).

    Breeding interval: Female hartebeest bear a single offspring no more than once per year.

    Breeding season: Mating season varies in this species, depending on the location of the population.

    Range number of offspring: 1 to 1.

    Range gestation period: 7.13 to 8.07 months.

    Range weaning age: 4 to 8 months.

    Average weaning age: 4 months.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

    Average birth mass: 9050 g.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female:
    730 days.

    Parental Investment: altricial ; post-independence association with parents

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
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    Swayne's hartebeest (A. buselaphus swaynei) and the Tora hartebeest (A. buselaphus tora) are endangered because of small and continually declining populations. Four other subspecies are classified as lower risk by the IUCN, but will be rated threatened or endangered if ongoing conservation efforts are ended. The reasons for population declines are unknown but have been attributed to the expansion of cattle into hartebeest feeding territories and, to a lesser extent, habitat destruction and hunting. Kindon (1989) remarks that "the hartebeest has probably suffered the greatest contraction in range of all African ruminants." Once prolific in Africa it now has very limited territories.

    US Federal List: endangered

    CITES: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
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    The hartebeest competes with cattle for grazing land. Although their meat it desirable, hartebeests exhibit a complex social system and are hard to maintain in a closed environment. For this reason, they are not good candidates for domestication. They are rare at zoos because they are dangerous to people and each other if closely confined (Kingdon 1989).

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The hartebeest is a prized game animal both for its meat, which is recognized as having excellent flavor, and as a trophy. Presently, hunting travel packages that include seeking hartebeests are easy to come by on the internet (African Safari Consultants). Since it is fairly sedentary and easily visible, the hartebeest is fairly easy to hunt (Kingdon 1989).

    Positive Impacts: food

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There is evidence that the hartebeest once was domesticated by the ancient Egyptians and used as a sacrificial animal (Kingdon 1990 and African Wildlife Foundation).