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Karenia selliformis A. J. Haywood, K. A. Steidinger & L. MacKenzie 2004

Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Karenia selliformis
    provided by wikipedia

    Karenia selliformis is a species from the genus Karenia, which are dinoflagellates. It was first discovered in New Zealand.[1] Karenia selliformis produces the highly toxic gymnodimine, and as such is a potentially harmful ocean dweller.[2] Gymnodimine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-blocking phycotoxin, a source of shellfish poisoning.[3][4][5]

    Description

    Common to the Karenia genus, this species shares morphological characters such as a smooth theca and a linear apical groove on its apex. At the same time, this species can be distinguished from its cogenerates on the basis of morphological characteristics within its vegetative cells, including the location and shape of its nucleus; the excavation of its hypotheca; the characteristics of its apical and sulcal groove extensions on the epitheca; the shape of its cells, as well as their size and symmetry; the degree of dorsoventral compression; and the presence of an apical carina.

    Species that present said dorsoventral compression are shown to swim in a distinctive fluttering motion.[6][7]

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of rDNA indicates Karenia selliformis, together with K. papilionacea and K. bicuneiformis, is closely related to K. mikimotoi and K. brevis.[1]

    References

    1. ^ a b Haywood, Allison J.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Truby, Earnest W.; Bergquist, Patricia R.; Bergquist, Peter L.; Adamson, Janet; Mackenzie, Lincoln (2004). "COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS KARENIA (DINOPHYCEAE) FROM NEW ZEALAND1". Journal of Phycology. 40 (1): 165–179. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.2004.02-149.x. ISSN 0022-3646..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ McKenzie, L., Veronica Beuzenberg, and Paul McNabb. "Production of gymnodimine by Karenia selliformis. (Haywood et al)." Harmful Algae (2002): 160-162.
    3. ^ Kharrat, Riadh; Servent, Denis; Girard, Emmanuelle; Ouanounou, Gilles; Amar, Muriel; Marrouchi, Riadh; Benoit, Evelyne; Molgó, Jordi (2008). "The marine phycotoxin gymnodimine targets muscular and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes with high affinity". Journal of Neurochemistry. 107: 952–63. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05677.x. ISSN 0022-3042. PMID 18990115.
    4. ^ Stewart, Michael; Blunt, John W; Munro, Murray Hg; Robinson, Ward T; Hannah, Donald J (1997). "The absolute stereochemistry of the New Zealand shellfish toxin gymnodimine". Tetrahedron Letters. 38 (27): 4889–4890. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(97)01050-2. ISSN 0040-4039.
    5. ^ Munday, Rex; Towers, Neale R; Mackenzie, Lincoln; Beuzenberg, Veronica; Holland, Patrick T; Miles, Christopher O (2004). "Acute toxicity of gymnodimine to mice". Toxicon. 44 (2): 173–178. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.05.017. ISSN 0041-0101.
    6. ^ Rhodes, Lesley, and Susie Wood. "Micro-algal and Cyanobacterial Producers of Biotoxins." Toxins and Biologically Active Compounds from Microalgae 1 (2014): 21.
    7. ^ Kamykowski, D.; Milligan, E. J.; Reed, R. E. (1998). "Relationships between geotaxis/phototaxis and diel vertical migration in autotrophic dinoflagellates". Journal of Plankton Research. 20 (9): 1781–1796. doi:10.1093/plankt/20.9.1781.