dcsimg
Cultural and economic importance
provided by EOL authors
Many Rubus species were important food sources for native peoples of the Northern Hemisphere, who used the fruits and, in some species, the leaves, stems or roots; the berries were also used as a source of dye. The economic importance of this diverse group is hard to assess, as there are so many different species, but the FAO estimates that the total commercial production of raspberries and other berries (not specified, but not including blueberries, cranberries, gooseberries, or strawberries) was 1.4 million metric tons, harvested from 223,190 hectares worldwide. However, this undoubtedly understates the numerous berries produced for local markets and in home gardens. (Bailey et al. 1976, FAOSTAT 2012.)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Jacqueline Courteau
partner site
EOL authors
ID
20819034
Molecular Phylogeny
provided by EOL authors

Alice and Campell used the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) to build a phylogeny of Rubus. The dataset was comprised of 57 species from 12 subgenera.

Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences, Am. J. Bot., January 1999, vol. 86, no. 1, 81-97

Yang et al. investigated the phylogeny of about 20 species with distributions in east Asian. The authors focused on the subgenera Idaeobatus (14 species). Sequence data of the second intron of the nuclear gene (LEAFY) as well as data from a prevoius study (Yang and Pak 2006) from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a the plastid intergenic spacer trnL-F was used for analysis.

Phylogeny of Korean Rubus (Rosaceae) based on the second intron of the LEAFY gene,Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 2012, 92(3): 461-472

Phylogeny of Korean Rubus (Rosaceae) based on ITS(nrDNA) and trnL/F intergenic region (cpDNA), Yang and Pak, J. Plant Biol, 2006, 49: 44-54

license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Thomas Horn
partner site
EOL authors
ID
27219769
Brief Summary
provided by EOL authors
Rubus, the bramble or bramble genus, consists of around 700 species of usually woody and deciduous shrubs or trailing shrubs, but occasionally perennial herbs, in the Rosaceae (rose family), particularly abundant in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The genus is the source of numerous widely cultivated species and varieties of berries, among them: blackberries (R. fruticosus is frequently cultivated, while R. allegheniensis is a widespread wild species in North America); raspberries (R. idaeus is the source of many commercial varieties, but the black raspberry, R. occidentalis, is commonly gathered in the wild in North America, and has been the source of some cultivars); cloudberries (R. chamaemorus), which are restricted to cold temperate climes bordering the Arctic, but are commercially harvested in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; dewberries (R. flagellaris and others); wineberries (R. phoenicolasius), native to China and Japan; veitchberries (R. ulmifolius); and various complex hybrids, including loganberries (var. loganobaccus, which originated as a cross between R. fruticosus and R. idaeus); boysenberries (likely a backcross between loganberry and one of its parent species); tayberries (probably from R. ulmifolius, R. vitifolius, and R. allegheniensis); and hildaberries (a hybrid of boysenberries and tayberries). In addition to cultivated fruits, the genus also has a number of species that are grown as ornamentals, for their flowers or foliage. Although Rubus includes many cultivated berry species, other commonly cultivated berries that do NOT belong to this genus are strawberries (Fragaria spp., also in the Rosaceae), blueberries cranberries, and lingonberries (Vaccinium spp., in the Ericaceae); huckleberries (Gaylusaccia species, in the Ericaceae), and gooseberries (Ribes species, related to currants, in the Grossulariaceae or Saxifragaceae). Rubus species are botanically complex and often difficult to classify, as many species readily hybridize readily, and they are also characterized by apomixis (asexual reproduction), which leads to the persistence of many clonal lines that may appear to be separate species. Among this large group of species there is considerable variation in form, but in general they have erect, climbing, arching, or prostrate stems, in most species woody although herbaceous in a few; stems may be hairy or glabrous (smooth) or sometimes glaucous (waxy), and usually with prickles or bristles (hence the common name, brambles). The leaves are alternate and usually palmately or pinnately compound but occasionally simple, often toothed; leaves may be glabrous or hairy, sometimes with bristles or glandular hairs. Most Rubus species are biennials, with first year canes (primocanes) that have leaves only, while flowers and fruit develop on the second-year canes (floricanes). Leaf characters may vary from first to second year, which further complicates species recognition and classification. Flowers, which are usually bisexual, are white, pink, or red, generally with 5 petals, and often occur in clusters but are occasionally solitary. The fruit is not botanically a berry, but is an aggregate of drupes or achenes—a compound fruit that develops from a single flower and composed of many smaller drupes (fleshy pulp surrounding a hard seed) or achenes (small, hard-coated fruits with skins that do not split open to reveal the seed when mature). The drupelets or achenes are aggregated on semispherical, conical, or cylindrical torus-shaped receptacle, from which the fruit may separate when it is picked or falls, leaving behind a hollow (as in raspberries); or the receptacle may remain attached to the fruit (as in blackberries). (Bailey et al. 1976, FAOSTAT 2012, Flora of China Hedrick 1919, Martin et al. 1951, Michigan Flora Online 2011, van Wyk 2005.)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Jacqueline Courteau
partner site
EOL authors
ID
20819032
General Ecology
provided by EOL authors
Rubus species are found in a diverse range of ecosystems, and provide food for numerous species of birds (at least 97 species in North America), mammals (at least 28 species, ranging from small mammals to fur species to hoofed browsers), and insects. (Martin et al. 1951.)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Jacqueline Courteau
partner site
EOL authors
ID
20819033
Rubus
provided by wikipedia EN
genus of plants in the rose family

Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.[4]

Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets. The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit"), or "cane berry" (or "caneberry"), applies to any Rubus species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry, boysenberry, marionberry and tayberry.[5]

Overview

Most species are hermaphrodites, Rubus chamaemorus being an exception.

The blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.

The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word ruber, meaning "red".[6]

The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".

Examples of the hundreds of species of Rubus include:

The British National Collection of Rubus is held by Barry Clark at Houghton, Hampshire. His collection stands at over 200 species and, although not within the scope of the National Collection, he also grows many cultivars.[7][8]

Hybrid berries

The term "hybrid berry" is often used collectively for those fruits in the genus Rubus which have been developed mainly in the USA and UK in the last 130 years. As Rubus species readily interbreed and are apomicts (able to set seed without fertilisation), the parentage of these plants is often highly complex, but is generally agreed to include cultivars of blackberries, (Rubus ursinus, R. fruticosus) and raspberries (R. idaeus).

The hybrid berries include:-[9]

  • Loganberry (California, USA, 1883) R. × loganobaccus, a spontaneous cross between R. ursinus 'Aughinbaugh' and R. idaeus 'Red Antwerp'
  • Boysenberry (USA, 1920s) a cross between R. idaeus and R. × loganobaccus
  • Veitchberry (Europe, 1930s) a cross between R. fruticosus and R. idaeus
  • Marionberry (1956) now thought to be a blackberry cultivar R. 'Marion'
  • Silvanberry, R. 'Silvan', a cross between R. 'Marion' and boysenberry
  • Tayberry (Dundee, Scotland, 1979), another blackberry/raspberry cross
  • Tummelberry, R. 'Tummel', from the same Scottish breeding programme as tayberry
  • Hildaberry (1980s), a tayberry/boysenberry cross discovered by an amateur grower

Scientific classification

The genus Rubus is a very complex one, particularly the blackberry/dewberry subgenus (Rubus), with polyploidy, hybridization, and facultative apomixis apparently all frequently occurring, making species classification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany.

Rubus species have a basic chromosome number of seven. Polyploidy from the diploid (14 chromosomes) to the tetradecaploid (98 chromosomes) is exhibited.

Some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other Rubus subgenera (such as the raspberries) are generally distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. (In this case, the two-species view is followed here, with Rubus idaeus and R. strigosus both recognized; if these species are combined, then the older name R. idaeus has priority for the broader species.)

Molecular data have backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number, but following morphological data, such as the structure of the leaves and stems, do not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification.[10]

The classification presented below[citation needed] recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus (Rubus) in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented, but many more species are not mentioned here.

 src=
Commercially produced R. strigosus raspberries

Fossil record

Fossil seeds from the early Miocene of Rubus sp. have been found in the Czech part of the Zittau Basin. [11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Rubus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-06-27..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ "Rubus L.". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
  3. ^ Alice, Lawrence A.; Goldman, Douglas H.; Macklin, James A.; Moore, Gerry (2014). "Rubus". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 9. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Brouillet, Luc (2014). "Rosaceae (subfam. Rosoideae) tribe Rubeae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 9. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ Klein, Carol (2009). Grow your own fruit. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-84533-434-5.
  6. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2345. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3.
  7. ^ National Collection of Rubus Species, Houghton, England, United Kingdom
  8. ^ "Plant Heritage – National Collections Scheme, UK Garden Plants". nccpg.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  9. ^ Ardle, John (July 2013). "Hybris vigour". The Garden.
  10. ^ Lawrence A. Alice & Christopher S. Campbell (1999). "Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 86 (1): 81–97. doi:10.2307/2656957. JSTOR 2656957. PMID 21680348.
  11. ^ Acta Palaeobotanica – 43(1): 9-49, January 2003 – Early Miocene carpological material from the Czech part of the Zittau Basin – Vasilis Teodoridis

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
3a21045766e9e32e2500811ad6b8bb67
Rubus: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN
genus of plants in the rose family

Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.

Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets. The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit"), or "cane berry" (or "caneberry"), applies to any Rubus species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry, boysenberry, marionberry and tayberry.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
fb629e3261ab8663858e2e26ab649abe