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Brief Summary

    Thermomicrobia: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Thermomicrobia is a group of thermophilic green non-sulfur bacteria. Based on species Thermomicrobium roseum (type species) and Sphaerobacter thermophilus, this bacteria class has the following description:

    The class Thermomicrobia subdivides into two orders with validly published names: Thermomicrobiales Garrity and Holt 2001 and Sphaerobacterales Stackebrandt, Rainey and Ward-Rainey 1997. Gram negative. Pleomorphic, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Nonsporulating. No diamino acid present in peptidoglycan in significant amount. Atypical proteinaceous cell walls. Hyper-thermophilic, optimum growth temperature at 70-75. Obligately aerobic and chemoorganotrophic.

Comprehensive Description

    Thermomicrobia
    provided by wikipedia

    The Thermomicrobia is a group of thermophilic green non-sulfur bacteria. Based on species Thermomicrobium roseum (type species) and Sphaerobacter thermophilus, this bacteria class has the following description:[1][2]

    The class Thermomicrobia subdivides into two orders with validly published names: Thermomicrobiales Garrity and Holt 2001 and Sphaerobacterales Stackebrandt, Rainey and Ward-Rainey 1997. Gram negative. Pleomorphic, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Nonsporulating. No diamino acid present in peptidoglycan in significant amount. Atypical proteinaceous cell walls. Hyper-thermophilic, optimum growth temperature at 70-75. Obligately aerobic and chemoorganotrophic. [note 1]

    History

    In 1973, a strain of rose-pink thermophilic bacteria was isolated from Toadstool Spring in Yellowstone National Park, which was later named Thermomicrobium roseum and proposed as a novel species of the novel genus Thermomicrobium.[3] At that time the genus was categorized under family Achromobacteraceae, but it became a distinct phylum by 2001.[1]

    In 2004 , it was proposed, on the basis of an analysis of genetic affiliations, that the Thermomicrobia should more properly be reclassified as a class belonging to the phylum chloroflexi. The bacteria Sphaerobacter thermophilus originally described as an Actinobacteria is now considered a Thermomicrobia.[2][4] In the same year, another strain of rose-pink thermophilic bacteria was isolated from Yellowstone National Park, which was named Thermobaculum terrenum.[5] Later analysis based on genome put this species under Thermomicrobia class. [6] However, the current standing of Thermobaculum terrenum is disputed.[7]

    In 2012, a thermo-tolerant nitrite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from a bioreactor, which was later named Nitrolancetus hollandica. While it has nitrite-oxidizing activity, which is unique in the Thermomicrobia class, it is placed under the Thermomicrobia class based on 16s rRNA phylogeny.[8]

    In 2014, two thermophilic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria (strains KI3T and KI4T) were isolated from geothermally heated biofilms growing on a tumulus in the Kilauea Iki pit crater on the flank of Kilauea Volcano in Hawai'i. Besed on 16s rRNA analysis, both strain were proposed as representatives of new species. The KI3T, later named as Thermomicrobium carboxidum, is closely related to Thermomicrobium roseum. The KI4T, later named as Thermorudis peleae, was proposed as a type strain of new genus Thermorudis. [9]

    In 2015, a thermophilic bacteria strain WKT50.2 isolated from geothermo soil in Waitike(New Zealand) was proposed to be a novel species, later named Thermorudis pharmacophila. Phylogenic analysis based on 16s rRNA place it within Thermomicrobia class, as close relative to Thermorudis peleae.

    Characteristics

    Taxonomy

    Thermomicrobia has the following taxonomy:[10][11]

    Class Thermomicrobia

    • Genus Thermorudis[9]
      • Thermorudis peleae[9]
      • Thermorudis pharmacophila[12]

    Notes

    1. ^ The above description does not take newly discovered species after 2004 into account.
    2. ^ a b c d Strain found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but has no standing with the Bacteriological Code (1990 and subsequent Revision) as detailed by List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) as a result of the following reasons:
    3. ^ a b As of 2018-09-16, this strain had been moved from "Thermomicrobia" into "unclassified Terrabacteria group" in NCBI database.

    References

    1. ^ a b Garrity GM, Holt JG (2001). "Phylum BVII. Thermomicrobia phy. nov.". In Boone DR, Castenholz RW, Garrity GM. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria. New York: Springer..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b Hugenholtz P, Stackebrandt E (November 2004). "Reclassification of Sphaerobacter thermophilus from the subclass Sphaerobacteridae in the phylum Actinobacteria to the class Thermomicrobia (emended description) in the phylum Chloroflexi (emended description)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 54 (Pt 6): 2049–51. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.03028-0. PMID 15545432.
    3. ^ a b c Jackson TJ, Ramaley RF, Meinschein WG (January 1973). "Thermomicrobium, a new genus of extremely thermophilic bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 23 (1): 28–36. doi:10.1099/00207713-23-1-28.
    4. ^ Boone DR, Baker CC (2002). "Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52: 685–90. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010.
    5. ^ a b c Botero LM, Brown KB, Brumefield S, Burr M, Castenholz RW, Young M, McDermott TR (April 2004). "Thermobaculum terrenum gen. nov., sp. nov.: a non-phototrophic gram-positive thermophile representing an environmental clone group related to the Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria) and Thermomicrobia". Archives of Microbiology. 181 (4): 269–77. doi:10.1007/s00203-004-0647-7. PMID 14745485.
    6. ^ Kunisawa T (August 2011). "The phylogenetic placement of the non-phototrophic, Gram-positive thermophile 'Thermobaculum terrenum' and branching orders within the phylum 'Chloroflexi' inferred from gene order comparisons". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (Pt 8): 1944–53. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.026088-0. PMID 20833875.
    7. ^ See the NCBI webpage on unclassified Terrabacteria group Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
    8. ^ a b c Sorokin DY, Lücker S, Vejmelkova D, Kostrikina NA, Kleerebezem R, Rijpstra WI, Damsté JS, Le Paslier D, Muyzer G, Wagner M, van Loosdrecht MC, Daims H (December 2012). "Nitrification expanded: discovery, physiology and genomics of a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium from the phylum Chloroflexi". The ISME Journal. 6 (12): 2245–56. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.70. PMC 3504966. PMID 22763649.
    9. ^ a b c d King, C. E.; King, G. M. (2014). "Thermomicrobium carboxidum sp. nov., and Thermorudis peleae gen. nov., sp. nov., carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from geothermally heated biofilms". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 64 (8): 2586–2592. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.060327-0.
    10. ^ Euzéby JP (April 1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. PMID 9103655. Archived from the original on 2013-01-27.
    11. ^ See the NCBI "Thermomicrobia (class)". Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
    12. ^ Houghton KM, Morgan XC, Lagutin K, MacKenzie AD, Vyssotskii M, Mitchell KA, McDonald IR, Morgan HW, Power JF, Moreau JW, Hanssen E, Stott MB (December 2015). "Thermorudis pharmacophila sp. nov., a novel member of the class Thermomicrobia isolated from geothermal soil, and emended descriptions of Thermomicrobium roseum, Thermomicrobium carboxidum, Thermorudis peleae and Sphaerobacter thermophilus". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 65 (12): 4479–87. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000598. PMID 26374291.
    13. ^ a b Demharter W, Hensel R, Smida J, Stackebrandt E (May 1989). "Sphaerobacter thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. A deeply rooting member of the actinomycetes subdivision isolated from thermophilically treated sewage sludge". Systematic and applied microbiology. 11 (3): 261–6. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(89)80023-2.

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