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Oncocalamus
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Oncocalamus is a monoecious genus of flowering plant in the palm family found in western Africa. The genus is the lone member of the Oncocalaminae; once placed with the vegetatively similar Eremospatha and Laccosperma in the Ancistrophyllinae, it is now isolated based on their unusual flowers and arrangement. Such a placement argues for a long and complex evolutionary process in the Calamoideae with heavy extinction rates.[2] The Greek genus name combines "horn" and "capsule".[3]

Description

The trunks are small, very spiny, and high climbing, becoming bare with age. All species form dense clusters with undivided or bifid juvenile leaves which become pinnate in maturity, with leaf sheath spines, leaflet cirri, and spiny petioles, all adapted for climbing. The leaflets are few to many, with one, two, or more folds, entire, acute, linear or sigmoid, and regularly arranged along the rachis.

As hapaxanths, the inflorescence emerges at the top of the stem, amongst reduced leaves, with male and female flowers, on a once-branched spike. The flowers are arranged in clusters of up to 11, with one or three pistillate and two to four staminate flowers at the center of the cluster. The fruit is spherical and covered in vertical rows of yellow to brown scales with one seed.

Distribution and habitat

Strictly low land rain forest inhabitants, they are found in equatorial west Africa.

References

  1. ^ G. Mann & H.A. Wendland ex J.D. Hooker in Bentham & J.D. Hooker, Genera Plantarum 3:881, 936. 1883. Type:O. manni
  2. ^ Uhl, Natalie W. and Dransfield, John (1987) Genera Palmarum - A classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 0-935868-30-5 / ISBN 978-0-935868-30-2
  3. ^ Riffle, Robert L. and Craft, Paul (2003) An Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-558-6 / ISBN 978-0-88192-558-6

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Oncocalamus: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Oncocalamus is a monoecious genus of flowering plant in the palm family found in western Africa. The genus is the lone member of the Oncocalaminae; once placed with the vegetatively similar Eremospatha and Laccosperma in the Ancistrophyllinae, it is now isolated based on their unusual flowers and arrangement. Such a placement argues for a long and complex evolutionary process in the Calamoideae with heavy extinction rates. The Greek genus name combines "horn" and "capsule".

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