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Bark Lice, Book Lice And True Lice

Psocodea

Psocodea

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Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice.[1] It was formerly considered a superorder, but is now generally considered by entomologists as an order. Despite the greatly differing appearance of Phthiraptera lice, they are believed to have evolved from within the former order Psocoptera, which contained the bark lice and book lice, now found to be paraphyletic.[2][3] Psocodea contains around 11,000 species, divided among seven suborders.[1][4]

External phylogeny

Psocodea has been recovered as a monophyletic group in recent studies. Their next closest relatives are traditionally recognized as the monophyletic grouping Condylognatha that contains Hemiptera (true bugs) and Thysanoptera (thrips), which all combined form the group Paraneoptera. However, this is somewhat unclear, as analysis has shown that Psocodea could instead be the sister taxon to Holometabola, which would render Paraneoptera as paraphyletic.[3]

Here is a simple cladogram showing the traditional relationships with a monophyletic Paraneoptera:[3]

Neoptera

Polyneoptera

Eumetabola

Holometabola

Paraneoptera

Psocodea

Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips)

   

Hemiptera (true bugs)

         

Here is an alternative cladogram showing Paraneoptera as paraphyletic, with Psocodea as sister taxon to Holometabola:[3]

Neoptera

Polyneoptera

Eumetabola    

Holometabola

   

Psocodea

    Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips)

   

Hemiptera (true bugs)

       

Internal phylogeny

Psocodea contains the two orders Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice, barklice or barkflies). However, studies have shown that Phthiraptera is in fact nested deep within Psocoptera, within the now-paraphyletic suborder Troctomorpha, making Psocoptera paraphyletic and an invalid grouping.[2][3]

Here is a cladogram showing the relationships within Psocodea:[3]

PsocodeaPsocomorpha    

Homilopsocidea

   

Caeciliusetae

         

Psocetae

   

Epipsocetae

     

Philotarsetae

             

Phthiraptera

   

Liposcelididae

     

Sphaeropsocidae

     

Amphientometae

       

Trogiomorpha

   

References

  1. ^ a b P. J. Gullan & P. S. Cranston (2010). "Taxobox 17 – Psocodea: "Psocoptera" (bark lice and book lice)". The Insects: an Outline of Entomology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 479. ISBN 9781444317671.
  2. ^ a b C. H. C. Lyal (1985). "Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)". Systematic Entomology. 10 (2): 145–165. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1985.tb00525.x. S2CID 86331606.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kevin P. Johnson; Christopher H. Dietrich; Frank Friedrich; Rolf G. Beutel; Benjamin Wipfler; Ralph S. Peters; Julie M. Allen; Malte Petersen; Alexander Donath; Kimberly K. O. Walden; Alexey M. Kozlov; Lars Podsiadlowski; Christoph Mayer; Karen Meusemann; Alexandros Vasilikopoulos; Robert M. Waterhouse; Stephen L. Cameron; Christiane Weirauch; Daniel R. Swanson; Diana M. Percy; Nate B. Hardy; Irene Terry; Shanlin Liu; Xin Zhou; Bernhard Misof; Hugh M. Robertson; Kazunori Yoshizawa (Dec 2018). "Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (50): 12775–12780. doi:10.1073/pnas.1815820115.
  4. ^ David Grimaldi & Michael S. Engel (2005). "The paraneopteran orders". Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge Evolution Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216–330. ISBN 9780521821490.
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Psocodea: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice. It was formerly considered a superorder, but is now generally considered by entomologists as an order. Despite the greatly differing appearance of Phthiraptera lice, they are believed to have evolved from within the former order Psocoptera, which contained the bark lice and book lice, now found to be paraphyletic. Psocodea contains around 11,000 species, divided among seven suborders.

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visit source
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