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Homalomena
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Homalomena is a genus of flowering plants within the family Araceae. Homalomena are primarily found in southern Asia and the southwestern Pacific, but there are a few species that are known to be indigenous to Latin America.[1][2][3] Many Homalomena have a strong smell of anise. The name derives apparently from a mistranslated Malayan vernacular name, translated as homalos, meaning flat, and mene = moon.

The plants of this genus are clump-forming evergreen perennials with mainly heart-shaped or arrowheaded shaped leaves. The flowers are tiny and without petals, enclosed in a usually greenish spathe hidden by the leaves.[4]

The Tamils knew of this plant for more than 3000 years. It is called merugu (Tamil: மெருகு ) and it is used for several purposes including curing stomach disorders, piles, flem etc. Several oils like kumaraguru enney; merugulli enney, merugu pachai enneyetc. are prepared to cure various type of diseases.[5]

Some authors have proposed splitting the genus and moving all the neotropical species of Homalomena to Adelonema.[6][7] At the present time (August 2014), Tropicos, The Plant List, and the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families have opted not to accept this change.[8][1][9]

Species[1]
  1. Homalomena adiensis A.Hay - western New Guinea
  2. Homalomena aeneifolia Alderw. - Sulawesi
  3. Homalomena agens Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Kalimantan Timur
  4. Homalomena ardua P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  5. Homalomena argentea Ridl. - Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo
  6. Homalomena aromatica (Spreng.) Schott - Yunnan, Assam, Bangladesh, Indochina
  7. Homalomena asmae Baharuddin & P.C.Boyce - Perak
  8. Homalomena asperifolia Alderw. - Sumatra
  9. Homalomena atroviridis Engl. & K.Krause - Papua New Guinea
  10. Homalomena atrox P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih - Sarawak
  11. Homalomena batoeensis Engl. - Sumatra
  12. Homalomena bellula Schott - Java
  13. Homalomena burkilliana Ridl. - Sumatra
  14. Homalomena clandestina P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  15. Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl. - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Yunnan, Guangdong
  16. Homalomena confusa Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia
  17. Homalomena consobrina (Schott) Engl. - Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra
  18. Homalomena cordata Schott - Java, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  19. Homalomena corneri Furtado - Jahore
  20. Homalomena crinipes Engl. - Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador
  21. Homalomena cristata Alderw. - Sumatra
  22. Homalomena curtisii Ridl. - Perak
  23. Homalomena curvata Engl. - Melaka
  24. Homalomena davidiana A.Hay - New Guinea
  25. Homalomena debilicrista Y.C.Hoe - Sarawak
  26. Homalomena distans Ridl. - New Guinea
  27. Homalomena doctersii Alderw. - Sumatra
  28. Homalomena elegans Engl. - Sumatra
  29. Homalomena elegantula A.Hay & Hersc. - Sumatra
  30. Homalomena erythropus (Mart. ex Schott) Engl. - Costa Rica, northwestern Brazil
  31. Homalomena expedita A.Hay & Hersc. - Sarawak
  32. Homalomena gadutensis M.Hotta - Sumatra
  33. Homalomena gaudichaudii Schott - New Guinea, Maluku, Philippines
  34. Homalomena giamensis L.S.Tung, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak
  35. Homalomena gillii Furtado - Sabah
  36. Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook.f. - Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo,Malaysia, Sumatra
  37. Homalomena hainanensis H.Li - Hainan
  38. Homalomena hammelii Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica
  39. Homalomena hanneae P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  40. Homalomena hastata M.Hotta - Sumatra
  41. Homalomena havilandii Ridl. - Sabah, Sarawak
  42. Homalomena hendersonii Furtado - Kelantan
  43. Homalomena hooglandii A.Hay - New Guinea
  44. Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f. - Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra
  45. Homalomena impudica Hersc. & A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  46. Homalomena insignis N.E.Br. - Borneo
  47. Homalomena jacobsiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  48. Homalomena josefii P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  49. Homalomena kalkmanii A.Hay - New Guinea
  50. Homalomena kelungensis Hayata - Taiwan
  51. Homalomena kiahii Furtado - Kelantan
  52. Homalomena korthalsii Furtado - Borneo
  53. Homalomena kualakohensis Zulhazman, P.C.Boyce & Mashhor - Peninsular Malaysia
  54. Homalomena kvistii Croat - Valle del Cauca in Colombia
  55. Homalomena lancea Ridl. - Sarawak
  56. Homalomena lancifolia Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand
  57. Homalomena latifrons Engl. - Borneo, Java, Sumatra
  58. Homalomena lauterbachii Engl. - New Guinea
  59. Homalomena lindenii (Rodigas) Ridl. - New Guinea
  60. Homalomena longipes Merr - Sumatra
  61. Homalomena magna A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  62. Homalomena major Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia
  63. Homalomena matangae Y.C.Hoe, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak
  64. Homalomena megalophylla M.Hotta - Sumatra
  65. Homalomena melanesica A.Hay - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands
  66. Homalomena metallica (N.E.Br.) Engl. - Borneo
  67. Homalomena minor Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia
  68. Homalomena minutissima M.Hotta - Brunei
  69. Homalomena moffleriana Croat & Grayum - Chocó region of Colombia
  70. Homalomena monandra M.Hotta - Sumatra
  71. Homalomena montana Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia
  72. Homalomena nigrescens (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra
  73. Homalomena nutans Hook.f. - Kelantan, Nicobar Islands
  74. Homalomena obovata Ridl. - Sumatra
  75. Homalomena obscurifolia Alderw. - Borneo
  76. Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan
  77. Homalomena ovalifolia (Schott) Ridl. - Borneo
  78. Homalomena ovata Engl. - Borneo
  79. Homalomena padangensis M.Hotta - Sumatra
  80. Homalomena palawanensis Engl. - Palawan
  81. Homalomena peekelii Engl. - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, New Guinea
  82. Homalomena peltata Mast. - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia
  83. Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh.f. - Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Islands
  84. Homalomena philippinensis Engl. - Philippines, Lan Yü Islands of Taiwan
  85. Homalomena picturata (Linden & André) Regel - Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, the Guianas
  86. Homalomena pineodora Sulaiman & P.C.Boyce - Perak
  87. Homalomena pontederifolia Griff. ex Hook.f. - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
  88. Homalomena producta A.Hay - New Guinea
  89. Homalomena pseudogeniculata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Brunei, Sarawak
  90. Homalomena pulleana Engl. & K.Krause - western New Guinea
  91. Homalomena punctulata Engl. - Brunei, Sarawak
  92. Homalomena pyrospatha Bogner - Sumatra
  93. Homalomena robusta Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea
  94. Homalomena rubescens (Roxb.) Kunth. - Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  95. Homalomena rusdii M.Hotta - Sumatra
  96. Homalomena sarawakensis Ridl. - Sarawak
  97. Homalomena saxorum (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra, Borneo
  98. Homalomena schlechteri Engl. - New Guinea
  99. Homalomena scortechinii Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia
  100. Homalomena sengkenyang P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  101. Homalomena silvatica Alderw. - Sumatra
  102. Homalomena singaporensis Regel - Peninsular Malaysia
  103. Homalomena soniae A.Hay - New Guinea
  104. Homalomena speariae Bogner & Moffler - Colombia
  105. Homalomena steenisiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  106. Homalomena stollei Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea
  107. Homalomena striatieopetiolata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  108. Homalomena subcordata Engl. - Sarawak
  109. Homalomena symplocarpifolia P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  110. Homalomena tenuispadix Engl. - New Guinea
  111. Homalomena terajaensis S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei
  112. Homalomena treubii Engl. - Borneo
  113. Homalomena truncata (Schott) Hook.f. - Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
  114. Homalomena vagans P.C.Boyce - Brunei, Sarawak
  115. Homalomena vietnamensis Bogner & V.D.Nguyen - Vietnam
  116. Homalomena vittifolia Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Sulawesi
  117. Homalomena vivens P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  118. Homalomena wallichii Schott - Pulau Pinang in Malaysia
  119. Homalomena wallisii Regel - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela
  120. Homalomena wendlandii Schott - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  121. Homalomena wongii S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei
  122. Homalomena zollingeri Schott - Java

References

  1. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. (2009). Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo IV: Homalomena specimens in the herbarium Beccarianum-Malesia (FI-B) of the Museo di Storia Naturale - Sezione Botanica "F.Parlatore" dell'Università di Firenze. Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 64: 169-173.
  4. ^ Flora of China Vol. 23 Page 17, 千年健属 qian nian jian shu, Homalomena Schott in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 20. 1832.
  5. ^ Bown, Deni (2000). Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family [ILLUSTRATED]. Timber Press. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 0-88192-485-7
  6. ^ Aroid genera
  7. ^ The Überlist of Araceae, 2013
  8. ^ Tropicos, Missouri Botanical Garden
  9. ^ The Systematics of Araceae

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Homalomena: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Homalomena is a genus of flowering plants within the family Araceae. Homalomena are primarily found in southern Asia and the southwestern Pacific, but there are a few species that are known to be indigenous to Latin America. Many Homalomena have a strong smell of anise. The name derives apparently from a mistranslated Malayan vernacular name, translated as homalos, meaning flat, and mene = moon.

The plants of this genus are clump-forming evergreen perennials with mainly heart-shaped or arrowheaded shaped leaves. The flowers are tiny and without petals, enclosed in a usually greenish spathe hidden by the leaves.

The Tamils knew of this plant for more than 3000 years. It is called merugu (Tamil: மெருகு ) and it is used for several purposes including curing stomach disorders, piles, flem etc. Several oils like kumaraguru enney; merugulli enney, merugu pachai enneyetc. are prepared to cure various type of diseases.

Some authors have proposed splitting the genus and moving all the neotropical species of Homalomena to Adelonema. At the present time (August 2014), Tropicos, The Plant List, and the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families have opted not to accept this change.

Species Homalomena adiensis A.Hay - western New Guinea Homalomena aeneifolia Alderw. - Sulawesi Homalomena agens Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Kalimantan Timur Homalomena ardua P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak Homalomena argentea Ridl. - Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo Homalomena aromatica (Spreng.) Schott - Yunnan, Assam, Bangladesh, Indochina Homalomena asmae Baharuddin & P.C.Boyce - Perak Homalomena asperifolia Alderw. - Sumatra Homalomena atroviridis Engl. & K.Krause - Papua New Guinea Homalomena atrox P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih - Sarawak Homalomena batoeensis Engl. - Sumatra Homalomena bellula Schott - Java Homalomena burkilliana Ridl. - Sumatra Homalomena clandestina P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl. - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Yunnan, Guangdong Homalomena confusa Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena consobrina (Schott) Engl. - Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra Homalomena cordata Schott - Java, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Homalomena corneri Furtado - Jahore Homalomena crinipes Engl. - Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador Homalomena cristata Alderw. - Sumatra Homalomena curtisii Ridl. - Perak Homalomena curvata Engl. - Melaka Homalomena davidiana A.Hay - New Guinea Homalomena debilicrista Y.C.Hoe - Sarawak Homalomena distans Ridl. - New Guinea Homalomena doctersii Alderw. - Sumatra Homalomena elegans Engl. - Sumatra Homalomena elegantula A.Hay & Hersc. - Sumatra Homalomena erythropus (Mart. ex Schott) Engl. - Costa Rica, northwestern Brazil Homalomena expedita A.Hay & Hersc. - Sarawak Homalomena gadutensis M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena gaudichaudii Schott - New Guinea, Maluku, Philippines Homalomena giamensis L.S.Tung, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak Homalomena gillii Furtado - Sabah Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook.f. - Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo,Malaysia, Sumatra Homalomena hainanensis H.Li - Hainan Homalomena hammelii Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica Homalomena hanneae P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak Homalomena hastata M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena havilandii Ridl. - Sabah, Sarawak Homalomena hendersonii Furtado - Kelantan Homalomena hooglandii A.Hay - New Guinea Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f. - Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra Homalomena impudica Hersc. & A.Hay - Papua New Guinea Homalomena insignis N.E.Br. - Borneo Homalomena jacobsiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea Homalomena josefii P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak Homalomena kalkmanii A.Hay - New Guinea Homalomena kelungensis Hayata - Taiwan Homalomena kiahii Furtado - Kelantan Homalomena korthalsii Furtado - Borneo Homalomena kualakohensis Zulhazman, P.C.Boyce & Mashhor - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena kvistii Croat - Valle del Cauca in Colombia Homalomena lancea Ridl. - Sarawak Homalomena lancifolia Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand Homalomena latifrons Engl. - Borneo, Java, Sumatra Homalomena lauterbachii Engl. - New Guinea Homalomena lindenii (Rodigas) Ridl. - New Guinea Homalomena longipes Merr - Sumatra Homalomena magna A.Hay - Papua New Guinea Homalomena major Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena matangae Y.C.Hoe, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak Homalomena megalophylla M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena melanesica A.Hay - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands Homalomena metallica (N.E.Br.) Engl. - Borneo Homalomena minor Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena minutissima M.Hotta - Brunei Homalomena moffleriana Croat & Grayum - Chocó region of Colombia Homalomena monandra M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena montana Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena nigrescens (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra Homalomena nutans Hook.f. - Kelantan, Nicobar Islands Homalomena obovata Ridl. - Sumatra Homalomena obscurifolia Alderw. - Borneo Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan Homalomena ovalifolia (Schott) Ridl. - Borneo Homalomena ovata Engl. - Borneo Homalomena padangensis M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena palawanensis Engl. - Palawan Homalomena peekelii Engl. - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, New Guinea Homalomena peltata Mast. - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh.f. - Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Islands Homalomena philippinensis Engl. - Philippines, Lan Yü Islands of Taiwan Homalomena picturata (Linden & André) Regel - Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, the Guianas Homalomena pineodora Sulaiman & P.C.Boyce - Perak Homalomena pontederifolia Griff. ex Hook.f. - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena producta A.Hay - New Guinea Homalomena pseudogeniculata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Brunei, Sarawak Homalomena pulleana Engl. & K.Krause - western New Guinea Homalomena punctulata Engl. - Brunei, Sarawak Homalomena pyrospatha Bogner - Sumatra Homalomena robusta Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea Homalomena rubescens (Roxb.) Kunth. - Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar Homalomena rusdii M.Hotta - Sumatra Homalomena sarawakensis Ridl. - Sarawak Homalomena saxorum (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra, Borneo Homalomena schlechteri Engl. - New Guinea Homalomena scortechinii Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena sengkenyang P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak Homalomena silvatica Alderw. - Sumatra Homalomena singaporensis Regel - Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena soniae A.Hay - New Guinea Homalomena speariae Bogner & Moffler - Colombia Homalomena steenisiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea Homalomena stollei Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea Homalomena striatieopetiolata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak Homalomena subcordata Engl. - Sarawak Homalomena symplocarpifolia P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak Homalomena tenuispadix Engl. - New Guinea Homalomena terajaensis S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei Homalomena treubii Engl. - Borneo Homalomena truncata (Schott) Hook.f. - Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia Homalomena vagans P.C.Boyce - Brunei, Sarawak Homalomena vietnamensis Bogner & V.D.Nguyen - Vietnam Homalomena vittifolia Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Sulawesi Homalomena vivens P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak Homalomena wallichii Schott - Pulau Pinang in Malaysia Homalomena wallisii Regel - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela Homalomena wendlandii Schott - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Homalomena wongii S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei Homalomena zollingeri Schott - Java
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