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Biarum
provided by wikipedia EN

Biarum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It is composed of plants that are native to the Middle East, southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Balkans), and North Africa.[1][2][3][4] Biarum are often found growing in rock crevices and graveled soil composed largely of limestone.

The leaves of Biarum can be similar to grass or even oval. Their corms are spherical and the plants as a whole tend to be small. Many Biarum are quite similar in appearance to Arums. To flower Biarum required a dry rest period during summer. Their inflorescence tend to grow close to the ground and produce an extremely intense and unpleasant odor. The fruits produced tend to be camouflaged so as to resemble stones. It's not entirely known how they are dispersed, but one idea is that they have evolved to avoid seed dispersal since doing so in such inhospitable environments might not be conducive to its reproduction.[5]

Species
  1. Biarum aleppicum J.Thiébaut - Syria
  2. Biarum angustatum (Hook.f.) N.E.Br. - Syria, Israel
  3. Biarum auraniticum Mouterde - Syria
  4. Biarum bovei Blume - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Iran
  5. Biarum carduchorum (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Iran
  6. Biarum carratracense (Willk.) Font Quer - southern Spain
  7. Biarum crispulum (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria
  8. Biarum davisii Turrill - Crete
  9. Biarum dispar (Schott) Talavera - southern Spain, Sardinia, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco
  10. Biarum ditschianum Bogner & P.C.Boyce - Turkey, Kastellorizo Island in Greece
  11. Biarum eximium (Schott & Kotschy) Engl. - Turkey, Jordan
  12. Biarum fraasianum (Schott) Nyman - Greece
  13. Biarum kotschyi (Schott) B.Mathew ex Riedl - Turkey
  14. Biarum marmarisense (P.C.Boyce) P.C.Boyce - Turkey, Symi Island in Greece
  15. Biarum mendax P.C.Boyce - southern Spain, Alto Alentejo Province in Portugal
  16. Biarum olivieri Blume - Egypt, Israel
  17. Biarum pyrami (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan
  18. Biarum rhopalospadix K.Koch - Greece
  19. Biarum straussii Engl. - Iran, Iraq
  20. Biarum syriacum (Spreng.) Riedl - Turkey, Syria
  21. Biarum tenuifolium (L.) Schott - Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, Turkey

References

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Boyce, P.C. (2008). A taxonomic revision of Biarum Araceae. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 209: 2-119.
  4. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Genere: Biarum includes photos and European distribution maps
  5. ^ Bown, Deni (2000). Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family. Timber Press. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 0-88192-485-7.
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Biarum: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Biarum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It is composed of plants that are native to the Middle East, southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Balkans), and North Africa. Biarum are often found growing in rock crevices and graveled soil composed largely of limestone.

The leaves of Biarum can be similar to grass or even oval. Their corms are spherical and the plants as a whole tend to be small. Many Biarum are quite similar in appearance to Arums. To flower Biarum required a dry rest period during summer. Their inflorescence tend to grow close to the ground and produce an extremely intense and unpleasant odor. The fruits produced tend to be camouflaged so as to resemble stones. It's not entirely known how they are dispersed, but one idea is that they have evolved to avoid seed dispersal since doing so in such inhospitable environments might not be conducive to its reproduction.

Species Biarum aleppicum J.Thiébaut - Syria Biarum angustatum (Hook.f.) N.E.Br. - Syria, Israel Biarum auraniticum Mouterde - Syria Biarum bovei Blume - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Iran Biarum carduchorum (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Iran Biarum carratracense (Willk.) Font Quer - southern Spain Biarum crispulum (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria Biarum davisii Turrill - Crete Biarum dispar (Schott) Talavera - southern Spain, Sardinia, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco Biarum ditschianum Bogner & P.C.Boyce - Turkey, Kastellorizo Island in Greece Biarum eximium (Schott & Kotschy) Engl. - Turkey, Jordan Biarum fraasianum (Schott) Nyman - Greece Biarum kotschyi (Schott) B.Mathew ex Riedl - Turkey Biarum marmarisense (P.C.Boyce) P.C.Boyce - Turkey, Symi Island in Greece Biarum mendax P.C.Boyce - southern Spain, Alto Alentejo Province in Portugal Biarum olivieri Blume - Egypt, Israel Biarum pyrami (Schott) Engl. - Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan Biarum rhopalospadix K.Koch - Greece Biarum straussii Engl. - Iran, Iraq Biarum syriacum (Spreng.) Riedl - Turkey, Syria Biarum tenuifolium (L.) Schott - Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, Turkey
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