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Description

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Plants monoecious or rarely dioecious. Rhizome yellowish brown, unbranched or in a mass, surface with granular warts and scattered yellow stellate lenticels; branches subglobose, depressed, ca. 1.5 × 2.5 cm. Scapes pink, reddish orange, or occasionally yellowish, 3-8 × 0.6-1.5 cm at anthesis, to 12 cm in fruit. Leaves 15-30, spirally arranged or rarely opposite, imbricate, broadly ovate, 1-1.5 × 1.5-1.7 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescences ellipsoid, ovoid, or conically ovoid, 1-3 × 1-2 cm. Male flowers: basally on androgynous inflorescences, actinomorphic, subtended by short rudimentary bracts. Pedicel 4-5 mm. Perianth lobes 4 or 5, ovate-elliptic, apex acute. Synandria subglobose, stipe 0.5-1 mm; anthers 4 or 5, U-shaped. Spadicles subclavate, apical 1/2 ellipsoid; cuticular ridges of apical cells short but distinct and congested. Female flowers: yellowish, basally on spadicles and main axis of inflorescence. Fl. Dec.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 273 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Distribution

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Taiwan [Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), New Guinea, Philippines; Australia, Pacific Islands].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 273 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat

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Coastal forests; near sea level to 900 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 5: 273 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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visit source
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eFloras

Balanophora fungosa

provided by wikipedia EN

Balanophora fungosa, sometimes known as fungus root is a flowering plant in the family Balanophoraceae and occurs in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands. It is an obligate parasite growing on the roots of rainforest trees. The flowering structure is shaped like a puffball but in fact consists of a globe covered with thousands of tiny female flowers. The globe is surrounded at its base by a much smaller number of male flowers. In flower, the plant emits an odour resembling that of mice.[1][2]

Description

Like other members of its genus, B. fungosa is holoparasitic and contains no chlorophyll.[1] The aerial parts of the plant consist of a hard, irregularly shaped tuber from which the flower-bearing structures extend.[3] The leaves are scale-like, pale cream in colour, 8–30 millimetres (0.3–1 in) long, 7–20 millimetres (0.3–0.8 in) wide and more or less stem clasping.[2][4]

The plant is monoecious, bearing both pistillate (female) and staminate (male) flowers. Thousands of minute female flowers cover a globe-shaped structure 15–20 millimetres (0.6–0.8 in) in diameter. The styles are less than 1 millimetre (0.04 in) long. About 20 male flowers are arranged around the base of the globe, each about 3–5 millimetres (0.1–0.2 in) in diameter with a pedicel about 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) long and are covered with powdery white pollen.[2][4]

Taxonomy and naming

Balanophora fungosa was described by Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster in 1774 and the description was published in Characteres Generum Plantarum.[5][6] The specific epithet (fungosa) is a Latin word meaning "full of holes" or "spongy".[7]

There are two subspecies–

  • Balanophora fungosa J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. subsp. fungosa
  • Balanophora fungosa subsp. indica J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. var. indica

Distribution and habitat

Balanophora fungosa is found in coastal forests from near sea level to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Ryukyu Islands, New Guinea, the Philippines, some Pacific Islands,[4] India[8] and Cambodia.[9] In Australia it occurs in Queensland from near the border with New South Wales to Cape York.[2]

Ecology

Twelve species of plant in eight families are known to be hosts to Balanophora fungosa var. indica including some of those in the genera Syzygium, Olea and Rapanea.[9] The plant is sometimes a weed in coffee and tea plantations.[10]

Numerous small animals visit the flowers, including ants, springtails, flies, a moth of the family noctuidae, and even rats, which appear to be attracted by the smell. Workers of the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana have been observed collecting pollen.[11] Two beetle species of the genus Lasiodactylus, a moth of the family Pyralidae and a moth of the family Tipulidae use the bracts at the base of the flowers as a breeding site.[12]

Use as medicine

Some cultures, such as the Paliar people of Tamil Nadu, use B. fungosa to treat medical conditions.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b "Balanophora fungosa". BSA Parasitic Plant Pages. St. Louis, MO: Botanical Society of America. Retrieved 4 January 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c d Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A.; et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Balanophora fungosa". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  3. ^ Kuijt, Job; Hansen, Bertel. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants Volume XII. Springer. p. 206. ISBN 978-3-319-09295-9.
  4. ^ a b c "Flora of China". Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  5. ^ "Balanophora fungosa". APNI. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  6. ^ Forster, Johann Reinhold; Forster, Georg (1775). Characteres generum plantarum, quas in itinere ad insulas maris Australis. London. p. 100. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  7. ^ Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 415.
  8. ^ Rao, J. Prakasa; Satish, K.V.; Sankar, B. Siva; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Kumar, O. Aniel (26 February 2015). "On the occurrence of parasitic plant Balanophora fungosa J.R. Forster & G. Forster (Balanophoraceae) in Andhra Pradesh, India" (PDF). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 7 (2): 6943–6946. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3962.6943-6. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  9. ^ a b Kim, Joo Hwan; Won, Hyosig (4 November 2013). "Identification of Plant Host Species of Balanophora fungosa var. indica from Phnom Bokor National Park of Cambodia using DNA barcoding techniquein". Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy. 43 (4): 252&ndash, 262. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b Kannan, R.; Babu, U.V. (September 2011). "Pharmacognostical Studies on Balanophora fungosa – a Negative Listed Plant". Ancient Science of Life. 31 (1): 22&ndash, 25.
  11. ^ Suetsugu, Kenji; Aoyama, Toshiyuki (September 2014). "Apis cerana visiting flowers of the Holoparasitic Plant Balanophora fungosa ssp. indica". Entomological News. 124 (2): 145–147. doi:10.3157/021.124.0211. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  12. ^ Irvine, Anthony K.; Armstrong, Joseph E. (1991). "Beetle Pollination in Tropical Forests of Australia". In K.S. Bawa; M. Hadle. Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants. CRC Press. p. 143. ISBN 9781850702689.
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Balanophora fungosa: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Balanophora fungosa, sometimes known as fungus root is a flowering plant in the family Balanophoraceae and occurs in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands. It is an obligate parasite growing on the roots of rainforest trees. The flowering structure is shaped like a puffball but in fact consists of a globe covered with thousands of tiny female flowers. The globe is surrounded at its base by a much smaller number of male flowers. In flower, the plant emits an odour resembling that of mice.

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