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Brief Summary

    Least pipistrelle: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The least pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis) is a species of vesper bat.

Comprehensive Description

    Least pipistrelle
    provided by wikipedia

    The least pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis) is a species of vesper bat.

    Distribution

    The bat is native to South Asia, Southeast Asia, Maritime Southeast Asia, Malesia, and southwestern Oceania. It has been recorded from sea level to 769 metres (2,523 ft) in elevation.

    Countries and islands it can be found in include: Laos, southeastern China and Hainan island, the Philippines, Borneo, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

    Description

    Head and body length is 6–7 cm. Forearm is 3 cm. Wingspan is 18–24 cm. Weight 6-8g.

    Females are larger than males. Dark brown to black above, and lighter below. Wing membrane, face, and ears are black. Wing membrane has no pale margins as that of Indian pipistrell. Muzzle short and broad. Nostrils small, rounded, and placed between facial swellings. Small ears with prominent tragus and antitragus. Fur is dense, short, silky, and covers entire body.

    Culture

    Known as හීන් කොස්-ඇට වවුලා (heen kos eata wawulaa) in Sinhala.

    Subspecies

    Subspecies include:[3]

    • Pipistrellus tenuis tenuis
    • Pipistrellus tenuis mimus
    • Pipistrellus tenuis murrayi
    • Pipistrellus tenuis nitidus
    • Pipistrellus tenuis ponceleti
    • Pipistrellus tenuis portensis
    • Pipistrellus tenuis sewelanus
    • Pipistrellus tenuis subulidens

    References

    1. ^ Francis, C.; Rosell-Ambal, G.; Tabaranza, B.; Lumsden, L.; Heaney, L.; Gonzalez, J.C. & Paguntulan, L.M. (2008). "Pipistrellus tenuis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T17368A7011413. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T17368A7011413.en. Retrieved 10 November 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Temminck C. J. (1840) Monogr. Mamm., 2: 229.
    3. ^ Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors). (2005). "Pipistrellus (Pipistrellus) tenuis". Mammal Species of the World. 3rd ed., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. accessed 11 Amarch 2009.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Least pipistrelles (Pipistrellus tenuis) are found throughout south and southeast Asia, from Afghanistan to China. THey are also found in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Borneo, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, and Indonesia.

    Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Pipistrellus tenuis is a very small bat, ranging in length from 69 to 77 mm in length and ranging in mass from 3.2 to 4.2 g. It has dark brown fur, transitioning to paler fur on the venter. It has a broad muzzle and the ear and tragus are relatively short when compared to other species in this genus. Sexual dimorphism has not been reported in this species.

    Range mass: 3.2 to 4.2 g.

    Range length: 69 to 77 mm.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Least Pipistrelles are found in a variety of habitats including forests, rural areas and urban areas. They inhabit secondary hill, montane or montane mossy forests in southeast Asia, in zones ranging from arid to humid. They roost in trees, leafy canopies, and in the walls or ceilings of buildings. They have been observed at elevations ranging from 800 to 1700 m above sea level.

    Range elevation: 800 to 1700 m.

    Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; scrub forest

    Other Habitat Features: urban ; caves

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Pipistrellus tenuis is an insectivore, feeding on a wide variety of insects including coleopterans, hymenopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. It uses echolocation to hunt its prey and sometimes is observed using its wings to bat its prey down before catching it in its mouth.

    Animal Foods: insects

    Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    As an insectivore, Pipistrellus tenuis likely helps controls insect pest populations throughout its geographic range. Parasites of this species have not been documented.

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There are known predators of Pipistrellus tenuis. In urban settings this species is sometimes viewed as a pest and may be killed by humans. Its nocturnal nature likely helps reduce risk of predation.

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There is no information available regarding communication in Pipistrellus tenuis. The closely related Perimyotis subflavus is known to communicate with young using a variety of clicks and tones. In addition, Pipistrellus pygmaeus exhibits distress through vocal signals. Pipistrellus tenuis perceives its immediate environment via echolocation and olfactory cues. In general, bats have reduced vision.

    Communication Channels: acoustic

    Perception Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; ultrasound ; echolocation ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The lifespan of Pipistrellus tenuis has not been undocumented; however, the lifespan of Perimyotis subflavus ranges from 4 to 8 years in the wild and Pipistrellus murrayi lives 8 years on average in the wild.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There is no information available regarding the mating system of Pipistrellus tenuis. Two separate breeding seasons exist for this species: one which occurs during February and March, and the other which occurs during July and August. These breeding seasons generally produce between one and three offspring. A close relative of P. tenuis, Pipestrellus pipestrellus, is known to form maternity roosts, with breeding males defending territories. Courtship in P. pipistrellus includes specific flight patterns and olfactory cues, including pheromones produced by males. A trait common to bats in the family Vespertilionidae is delayed fertilization, which allows the female to postpone fertilization until well after mating, thus allowing births to be precisely timed to occur when resources are plentiful.

    There is limited information available regarding the reproductive behavior of Pipistrellus tenuis. It breeds for two months at a time, twice a year from February to March and from July to August. Number of offspring per breeding cycle ranges from 1 to 3 pups, with an average of 2. The closely related Perimyotis subflavus has a gestational period that lasts 44 days. Perimyotis subflavus pups have an average birth weight of 1.8 g and are weaned by 4 weeks of age and become independent between 4 and 5 weeks of age. Perimyotis subflavus reaches sexual maturity between 3 and 11 months of age.

    Breeding interval: P. tenuis breeds for two months at a time, twice a year.

    Breeding season: February-March and July-August

    Range number of offspring: 1 to 3.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous ; delayed fertilization

    There is no information available regarding parental care in Pipistrellus tenuis, however, the closely related Perimyotis subflavus has been observed moving young between roost sites and is also known to fly with young during foraging bouts.

    Parental Investment: female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Pipistrellus tenuis is classified as a species of least concern on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. This species is locally abundant throughout its geographic range and there appear to be no major threats to its long-term persistence.

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    In urban and suburban settings, Pipistrellus tenuis is known to roost in the walls and ceilings of buildings. As a result, this species can cause a great deal of damage to the buildings it roosts in.

    Negative Impacts: household pest

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    As an insectivore, Pipistrellus tenuis helps controls insect pest populations, which likely helps reduce insect induced crop damage and disease transmission rates from insects to humans.

    Positive Impacts: controls pest population