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542.7829067154.130x130
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Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Comprehensive Description

    General Description
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    Shrubs (usually sprawling) or woody climbers, usually armed. Petiole 1-4 cm; leaflet blades usually sessile or subsessile, elliptic or narrowly elliptic to obovate to oblanceolate, 3-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, base narrowly cuneate to attenuate, apex acuminate or rarely acute to obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences to 17 cm. Sepals 0.3-0.5 mm. Petals cream-white, ovate to elliptic, 1-3.5 mm. Stamens in male flowers 3-4 mm, in female flowers ligulate and 0.2-0.8 mm. Disk 0.2-0.5 mm. Gynoecium in female flowers ovoid to ellipsoid and 1.5-2.5 mm, in male flowers subcylindric and 1-2 mm. Fruit 5-10 mm in diameter. Seeds 5-6.5 mm.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    Toddalia asiatica is occurring in Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan of China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa, Madagascar.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Africa, Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India, Ceylon, Burma, east to China, Malaysia.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Madagascar].

Morphology

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs (usually sprawling) or woody climbers, usually armed. Petiole 1-4 cm; leaflet blades usually sessile or subsessile, elliptic or narrowly elliptic to obovate to oblanceolate, 3-10 × 1-4 cm, base narrowly cuneate to attenuate, apex acuminate or rarely acute to obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences to 17 cm. Sepals 0.3-0.5 mm. Petals cream-white, ovate to elliptic, 1-3.5 mm. Stamens in male flowers 3-4 mm, in female flowers ligulate and 0.2-0.8 mm. Disk 0.2-0.5 mm. Gynoecium in female flowers ovoid to ellipsoid and 1.5-2.5 mm, in male flowers subcylindric and 1-2 mm. Fruit 5-10 mm in diam. Seeds 5-6.5 mm. Fl. year-round but mostly in spring and summer, fr. autumn and winter.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    450-1700 m

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Paullinia asiatica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 365. 1753, typ. cons.; Aralia labordei H. Léveillé; Toddalia asiatica var. floribunda (Wallich) Kurz; T. asiatica var. gracilis Gamble; T. asiatica var. obtusifolia Gamble; T. floribunda Wallich; T. tonkinensis Guillaumin.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    Growing in secondary forests, thickets; near sea level to 2000 m.
    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Secondary forests, thickets; near sea level to 2000 m.

Cyclicity

    Cyclicity
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    Flowering year-round but mostly in spring and summer; fruiting in autumn and winter.

Evolution

    Evolution
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    Phylogeny and classification of Rutaceae subfamilies Rutoideae and Toddalioideae were inferred from plastid (trnL intron and trnL-F spacer) and nuclear (ITS-1 and ITS-2 rDNA) regions (Poon et al., 2007). Results support to merging these two subfamilies established by Engler based on different fruit types. Moreover, Phellodendron, Tetradium, Toddalia, and Zanthoxylum were resolved as a clade, supporting the proposal for a ‘proto-Rutaceae’ group.

Genetics

    Genetics
    provided by Plants of Tibet
    The chromosomal number of Toddalia asiatica is 2n = 18 (Gunaseeli and Sampathkumar, 1985, 1990).