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Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.

Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Capparis decidua
    provided by wikipedia
    "Kair" redirects here. For the village in India, see Kair, Delhi. For the village in Iran, see Kair, Iran.

    Capparis decidua is commonly known as karira,[2] is a useful plant in its marginal habitat. Its spicy fruits are used for preparing vegetables, curry and fine pickles and can attract helpful insectivores; the plant also is used in folk medicine and herbalism. It can be used in landscape gardening, afforestation and reforestation in semidesert and desert areas; it provides assistance against soil erosion.[3]

    Vernacular names

    Names for the plant include kair, kerda, karir, kirir, karril (Hindi: करीर or कैर Sindhi: ڪِرڙ‎).

    Tree characteristics

    It is a small much branched tree or shrub of arid regions in Africa, Middle East and southern Asia, including the [[Thar desert]ears a mass of slender, leafless branches, the small caducous leaves being found only on young shoots. It rarely exceeds a height of 5 meters (15 feet).[4]

    Khair city has many Kair's trees in India. This city is famous for Kair trees.

    The new flush of leaves appears in November–January. Red conspicuous flowers appear in March to April and August–September and ripe by May and October. The pink fleshy berries are readily eaten by birds. It coppices well and produces root suckers freely. It is extremely drought-resistant and tolerates some frost.[4]

    Uses

    Karir tree in Mahabharata

    The Mahabharata Book VIII: Karna Parva, Chapter 30, verse 24 mentions tree species as Sami, Pilu and Karir tree species as under in Sanskrit and IAST:

    शमी पीलु करीराणां वनेषु सुखवर्त्मसु (śamī pīlu karīrāṇāṃ vaneṣu sukhavartmasu)
    अपूपान सक्तु पिण्डीश च खाथन्तॊ मदितान्विताः (apūpān saktu piṇḍīś ca khādanto mathitānvitāḥ)
    Meaning - "When shall I be amongst those ladies eating cakes of flour and meat and balls of pounded barley mixed with skimmed milk, in the forests, having many pleasant paths of Sami and Pilu and Karira!" (VIII.30.24)

    Images

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      Tree without fruits

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      Tree with fruits

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      Unripe fruits

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      Unripe fruits on the tree

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      Ripe fruits

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      Tawny Eagle perched on Capparis decidua

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      Flower

    Footnotes

    1. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 4 June 2016.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ USDA GRIN Taxonomy, retrieved 4 June 2016
    3. ^ Kaul (1963), Ghosh (1977)
    4. ^ a b Burdak, L.R. (1982). Recent Advances in Desert Afforestation- Dissertation submitted to Shri R.N. Kaul, Director, Forestry Research, F.R.I., Dehra Dun. p.55

    References

    • Kaul, R.N. (1963): Need for afforestation in the arid zones of Khair, India. LA-YAARAN 13.
    • Ghosh, R.C. (1977): Handbook on afforestation techniques. Khair, India.
    • Gupta, R.K. & Prakasah, Ishwar (1975): Environmental analysis of the Thar Desert. Dehra Dun.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: N. and Tropical Africa,Arabia, eastward to India.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    One of the common shrubs of arid plains of Sind, Baluchistan & Punjab, flowering abundantly during the hot weather. The wood is hard and bitter and resistant to attacks of white ants; it is used for making knees of boats in Sind. The young fruits and flower buds are pickled.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Low shrubs to small trees with leafless green crooked spiny branches, up to 5 m (rarely more) high. Leaves present on young twigs, caducous, linear, 4-20 mm long, 1-3 mm broad, often spine-tipped, subsessile; stipular spines 1-6 mm long, straight or slightly curved, yellow or brown. Inflorescence few to many flowered, ebracteate corymbs on short lateral shoots. Flowers 1-2 cm across on 1-1.5 cm long slender pedicel, usually brick red (shades of pink or yellow are not uncommon). Sepals petaloid, usually 5-8 mm long, 3-5 mm broad, ovate-oblong, upper one distinctly saccate, often with floccose-ciliate margins. Petals about as long as the sepals, puberulous, upper pair slightly larger and hidden in the saccate sepal. Stamens generally 10-15, about 10-20 mm long, often red in colour. Gyno¬phore 10-15 mm long; ovary about 2 mm in diam. with a beak about 1 mm long. Fruit globose, 10-15 mm in diam., slightly beaked, glabrous smooth, deep red when ripe and with thin pericarp; seeds reniform, 2-5 mm in diam.