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Toona sinensis (Juss.) M. Roem.

Brief Summary

    Toona sinensis: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

     src= Toona sinensis - MHNT

    Toona sinensis, with common names Chinese mahogany, Chinese toon, or red toon (Chinese: 香椿; pinyin: xiāngchūn; Hindi: daaraluu; Malay: suren; Vietnamese: tông dù) is a species of Toona native to eastern and southeastern Asia, from North Korea south through most of eastern, central and southwestern China to Nepal, northeastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and western Indonesia.

     src= Leaf (unusual specimen with terminal leaflet)

    It is a deciduous tree growing to 25 metres (82 ft) tall with a trunk up to 70 cm diameter. The bark is brown, smooth on young trees, becoming scaly to shaggy on old trees. The leaves are pinnate, 50–70 cm long and 30–40 cm broad, with 10–40 leaflets, the terminal leaflet usually absent (paripinnate) but sometimes present (imparipennate); the individual leaflets 9–15 cm long and 2.5–4 cm broad, with an entire or weakly serrated margin. The flowers are produced in summer in panicles 30–50 cm long at the end of a branch; each flower is small, 4–5 mm diameter, with five white or pale pink petals. The fruit is a capsule 2–3.5 cm long, containing several winged seeds.

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This is generally an upland species but also occurs at lower altitudes in China. It is planted in India and Sri Lanka for shade, and in various European cities (e.g., Paris) as an ornamental.

    The timber is used for furniture and sieve hoop-making, and in bridge construction. The leaves are used as a vegetable in China and Malaysia, and as animal fodder in India. The trees are widely used medicinally, with the bark being used as an astringent and depurative, powdered root as a refreshment and a diuretic, and tender leaves as a carminative.

    The leaf morphology and indumentum types and density are particularly variable in this species, with capsule valve form also showing some variability. On the basis of such features, up to eight infraspecific variants have been recognized by other authors.

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 20 m tall, to 1.5 m d.b.h., buttressed. Bark gray to dark brown, fissured; inner bark pink to red, fibrous; sap-wood cream-colored to red, fibrous, smelling strongly of garlic and pepper when cut. Leaves 32-120 cm; petiole 5.5-20 cm, glabrous or pilose; rachis often reddish, glabrous or pilose; leaflets usually 8-20 pairs; petiolules 3-9 mm, glabrescent; leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 11-22 × 3-5.6 cm, glabrous or pilose especially on midvein and secondary veins, with club-shaped glandular trichomes conspicuous on adaxial midvein areas and junction between leaf rachis and petiolules, base asymmetric, margin serrate, serrulate, or rarely entire, apex acuminate. Inflorescences to 1 m, pendent; rachis pilose, villous, or glabrescent, with short appressed or spreading simple trichomes. Flowers 3.5-4.5 mm. Pedicel ca. 0.5 mm, pilose to glabrescent. Calyx cup-shaped, 1-1.5 mm, outside glabrous; sepals 0.5-1.1 × 0.6-1.8 mm, margins ciliate. Petals white or flushed pink, 2.8-4.2 × 1.1-2.9 mm, outside glabrous, margin not ciliate. Androgynophore 2.5-4 mm, glabrous; staminodes always present, (1-)5, 0.7-1.8 mm, glabrous; filaments 1.3-1.8 mm (male flowers), 1-1.5 mm (female flowers), glabrous; anthers of male flowers 0.8-1.2 × 0.5-0.8 mm; antherodes of female flowers 0.3-0.8 × 0.3-0.5 mm, apex apiculate and sometimes extended. Disk orange, 1-1.5 mm in diam., glabrous. Ovary 1.6-2.3 mm in diam., glabrous, with to 6 ovules per locule; style 1.1-1.5 × ca. 0.5 mm (male), 0.5-0.8 × 0.3-0.4 mm (female), glabrous; stylehead 0.5-1 mm in diam. Capsule 1.5-3 cm; columella 1.2-2.9 × 0.6-1.1 cm, convex; valves reddish to dark brown, 1.5-3 × 0.4-0.7 cm, smooth or occasionally punctate but not conspicuously lenticellate, with only 0.3-0.5 mm in diam. scattered lenticels. Seeds 0.8-1.6 cm × 3.5-6.2 mm, winged at one end; seed body 0.8-1 cm × 1.7-4 mm. Fl. May-Oct, fr. Aug-Jan.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Cedrela sinensis A. Jussieu, Bull. Sci. Nat. Géol. 23: 241. 1830; Ailanthus flavescens Carrière ["Ailantus"]; C. glabra C. Candolle; C. longiflora Wallich ex C. Candolle, nom. illeg. superfl. (included type of C. glabra); C. longiflora var. kumaona C. Candolle; C. serrata Royle; C. serrata var. puberula C. Candolle; C. serrulata Miquel; C. sinensis var. hupehana C. Candolle; C. sinensis var. lanceolata H. L. Li; C. sinensis var. schensiana C. Candolle; Mioptrila odorata Rafinesque; Surenus glabra (C. Candolle) Kuntze; S. serrata (Royle) Kuntze; S. serrulata (Miquel) Kuntze; S. sinensis (A. Jussieu) Kuntze; Toona glabra (C. Candolle) Harms; T. microcarpa (C. Candolle) Harms var. denticulata A. Chevalier; T. microcarpa var. grandifolia A. Chevalier; T. serrata (Royle) M. Roemer; T. serrulata (Miquel) Harms; T. sinensis var. grandis Pampanini; T. sinensis var. hupehana (C. Candolle) A. Chevalier; T. sinensis var. incarvillei A. Chevalier; T. sinensis var. schensiana (C. Candolle) H. Li ex X. M. Chen.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Primary montane forests, especially on steep hillsides or open slopes, sometimes near streams; also occurring in ravines, mixed or secondary forests, disturbed areas; below 100-2900 m.