Brief Summary

    Trichodoridae: Brief Summary
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    Trichodoridae (stubby-root nematodes, trichodorids) is a family of terrestrial root feeding nematodes, being one of two that constitute suborder Triplonchida. They are economically important plant parasites and virus vectors.

Comprehensive Description

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    Trichodoridae (stubby-root nematodes, trichodorids) is a family of terrestrial root feeding nematodes, being one of two that constitute suborder Triplonchida.[3][4] They are economically important plant parasites and virus vectors.[5][6]


    The first trichodorid was described in 1880 (De Man) as Dorylaimus primitivus, and the type genus, Trichodorus described in 1913 by Cobb, based on Trichodorus obtusus.[7]


    Historically, up to 1973, Trichodorus was the only genus in this family. Originally it was the only genus in a subfamily, the Trichodorinae Thorne 1935,[1] within the family Diphtherophoridae, to distinguish it from the other subfamily, Diphtherophorinae.[8] However Diphtherophoridae was elevated to superfamily rank, and the subfamily Trichodorinae became a full-fledged family.[9] The genus Trichodorus was split into two genera in 1974 by Siddiqi,[10] Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus. This was based on the position of the gland nuclei and the type of pharyngo-intestinal junction. Siddiqi also used these criteria to divide Paratrichodirus into three subgenera, Paratrichodorus, Atlantadorus and Nanidorus. Rodriguez-Montessorosoon proposed further separating these genera into two subfamilies, resurrecting the name Trichodorinae.[11] With Siddiqi's subgenera not accepted by all authorities,[12] his elevation of these subgenera to genus level in 1980[13][14] was followed by even fewer,[15] but now is finding supports in molecular systematics.


    In the case of Nanidorus, phylogenetic analysis has supported its recognition as a separate genus, although clustering with Trichodorus rather than its parent Paratrichodorus.[15][16]


    There were few species recognised before the economic importance of the family was recognised, and in 1957 there were only 12, but this increased rapidly. In addition further genera than the original Trichodorus (1913) and Paratrichodorus (1974) were created in the 1970s, and another genus in 2002.[17]

    There are now about 100 species divided into five to six genera.[18][19] Duarte et al. (2010) list 102 species.[15]

    The two largest genera have didelphic females (two genital tracts), and are distributed worldwide. In the contrast the three small genera, have females that are monodelphic-prodelphic (single tract) and are native to Central America and the northern part of South America.


    Trichodoridae comes from the Greek trichos (a hair) and dory (a spear).[4] The name "stubby-root" comes from the effect of the nematodes on the root system which appears "stubby" or stunted.[23][5]

    Plant pathology

    The family only became of interest in 1951.[24] At that time Trichodorus christie (=Paratrichodorus minor) was recognised as a pest of crops (beets and corn) in Florida.[17] In 1961 it was discovered that they were also virus vectors,[25] though this seems to be mainly the didelphic genera.[15]


    1. ^ a b Thorne, G (1935). "Notes on free-living and plant parasitic nematodes, II". Proc. helminth. Soc. Wash. 2: 96–98..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Clark, W.C. (1961). "A revised classification of the order Enoplida (Nematoda)". New Zealand t.scf. 4 (1): 123–150.
    3. ^ Phylum Nematoda: Triplochida Nematode Classification. Department of Nematology. University of California, Riverside.
    4. ^ a b Order Triplochida Nemaplex: Nematode-Plant Expert Information System. University of California, Davis. Version October 9, 2012.
    5. ^ a b Decraemer 1995.
    6. ^ Zhang 2011, p. 66.
    7. ^ Decraemer 1995, pp. 4, 29.
    8. ^ Zuckerman 1971, p. 165.
    9. ^ Decraemer 1995, p. 257.
    10. ^ a b c Siddiqi, M.R. (1974). "Systematics of the genus Trichodorus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), with descriptions of three new species". Nematologica. 19: 259–278.
    11. ^ Fortuner R. List and Status of the Genera and Families of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Helminthological Abstracts Series B Plant Nematology September 1984 Vol.53 No.3
    12. ^ Decraemer, W (1980). "Systematics of the Trichodoridae (Nematoda) with keys to their species" (PDF). Revue. Nematol. 3 (1): 81–99.
    13. ^ Siddiqi, M.R. (1980). "On the generic status of Atlantadorus Siddiqi, 1974 and Nanidorus Siddiqi, 1974 (Nematoda: Trichodoridae)". Systematic Parasitology. 1: 151–152. doi:10.1007/bf00009861.
    14. ^ Decraemer 1995, p. 10.
    15. ^ a b c d Duarte et al. 2010.
    16. ^ Kumari & Subbotin 2012.
    17. ^ a b Decraemer 1995, p. 3.
    18. ^ Decraemer, W; Robbins, RT. "The who, what and where of longidoridae and trichodoridae". J Nematol. 39: 295–7. PMC 2586508. PMID 19259501.
    19. ^ Decraemer 1995, p. 36.
    20. ^ RODRIGUEZ-MR, .S, HER, S. A. & SIIYDIQIM, . R. (1978). Systematics of the monodelphic species of Trichodoridae (Nematoda : Diphtherophorina) with descriptions of a new genus and four new species. J. Nematol., 10 : 141-152
    21. ^ ANDRASSY, 1. (1976). Evolution as a basis for the systematization of nematodes. London, San Francisco & Melbourne, Pitman Publishing
    22. ^ Cobb, N. A. (1913). "New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh water and non-brackish soils". J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 3: 432–444.
    23. ^ W. T. Crow. Stubby-Root Nematode, Trichodorus obtusus Cobb (syn T. proximus) (Nematoda: Adenophorea: Triplonchida: Diphtherophorina: Trichodoridea: Trichodoridae.) University of Florida, 2013
    24. ^ CHRISTIE, J. R. & PERRY, V. G. (1951). Removing nematodes from soil. Proc. helm. Soc. Wasb. 18: 106-108.
    25. ^ SOL, H. H. & SEINHORST, J. W. (1961). The transmission of rattle virus by Trichodorus pachydermus. Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 67, 307-311