dcsimg
Morphology
provided by Animal Diversity Web

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
2000. "Cypraeidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cypraeidae.html
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web
ID
Cypraeidae/physical_description
Cypraeidae
provided by wikipedia EN

Cypraeidae, common name the cowries (singular: cowry), is a taxonomic family of small to large sea snails. These are marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Cypraeoidea, the cowries and cowry allies. [1]

Shell description

Cypraeidae have adult shells which are very rounded, almost like an egg; they do not look like a typical gastropod shell. In virtually all of the species in the family Cypraeidae, the shells are extremely smooth and shiny. This is because in the living animal, the shell is nearly always fully covered with the mantle.

Typically, no spire is visible in the fully adult shell, and there is a long, narrow, aperture which is lined with "teeth."

Juvenile cowry shells are not at all similar to adult cowry shells. The juvenile shells of cowries perhaps more closely resemble the shells of some "bubble snails" in the order Cephalaspidea. Also the shells of juvenile cowries seldom exhibit the same color patterns as the adult shells do, and thus can be hard to identify to species.

Cowries have no operculum.

Predators and prey

The very narrow toothed aperture of the cowry shell makes the adult shells difficult for many predators to reach into. However cowries are still vulnerable to predation:[2]

  • Some tropical crustaceans can break the dorsum of a cowry shell.
  • Some mollusc-eating cones, such as Conus textile, can inject venom into the cowry's flesh. The cone then extends its stomach into the shell, through the aperture, to completely ingest the flesh.
  • Some octopuses can gouge a small hole (using a special barb/tooth and an acidic secretion) through the shell to inject a venom that kills the animal within.

The eating habits of cowries are poorly known, because most species are nocturnal and cryptic, but sponges are the most commonly described prey. Off the coasts of Australia, common cowry species eat sponges,[2] and on Caribbean coral reefs they are known to eat sponges that are otherwise chemically defended against other predators.[3]

Taxonomy

For nearly 200 years, every species in the family Cypraeidae was placed in one genus, Cypraea, but in 2002 [4] the cowries were divided into many different genera.

2005 taxonomy

The family Cypraeidae belongs, together with the family Ovulidae, to the superfamily Cypraeoidea. This, in turn, is part of the clade Littorinimorpha which belongs within the clade Hypsogastropoda according to the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).

The following six subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) but are treated as alternate representation of Cypraeidae in the World Register of Marine Species :

  • Cypraeinae Rafinesque, 1815
    • tribe Cypraeini Rafinesque, 1815 - synonym: Porcellanidae Roberts, 1870 (inv.)
    • tribe Mauritiini Steadman & Cotton, 1946
  • Erosariinae Schilder, 1924 - synonyms: Cypraeacitinae Schilder, 1930 (inv.); Nariinae Schilder, 1932; Staphylaeinae iredale, 1935
  • Erroneinae Schilder, 1927
    • tribe Erroneini Schilder, 1927 - synonym: Adustinae Steadman & Cotton, 1946
    • tribe Bistolidini C. Meyer, 2003
  • Gisortiinae Schilder, 1927 - synonyms: Archicypraeinae Schilder, 1930; Bernayinae Schilder, 1927; Cpraeorbini Schilder, 1927; Mandolininae Schilder, 1932; Umbiliini Schilder 1932; Zoilinae Iredale, 1935
  • Luriinae Schilder, 1932
    • tribe Luriini Schilder, 1932 - synonym: Talpariinae Iredale, 1935
    • tribe Austrocypraeini Iredale, 1935
  • Pustulariinae Gill, 1871
    • tribe Pustulariini Gill, 1871
    • tribe Cypraeovulini Schilder, 1927
    • tribe Zonariini Schilder, 1932

Genera

Genera within the family Cypraeidae include:

 src=
Apertural view of a shell of Nucleolaria granulata
 src=
Neobernaya spadicea
 src=
Notocypraea piperita
 src=
Eclogavena quadrimaculata thielei
Nomen nudum
  • Cupinota Iredale, 1939 [6]

Species

For a list of Species in the taxonomic family Cypraeidae, see Cowries.

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=23022
  2. ^ a b Wilson, Barry; Clarkson, Peter (2004). Australia's Spectacular Cowries. El Cajon, CA, USA: Odyssey. ISBN 0966172027..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Pawlik, JR; Deignan, Lindsey (2015). "Cowries graze verongid sponges on Caribbean reefs". Coral Reefs. 34: 663. doi:10.1007/s00338-015-1279-x.
  4. ^ Lorenz F. 2002. New Worldwide Cowries. Descriptions of new taxa and revisions of selected groups of living Cypraeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Schriften zur Malakozoologie aus dem Haus der Natur-Cismar 20: 1-292, pl. 1-40
  5. ^ a b c d e f Meyer C. P. (2003) "Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79(3): 401–459. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00197.x
  6. ^ Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2016). Cupinota Iredale, 1939. In: MolluscaBase (2016). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=742093 on 2016-10-25

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
13ab048eef1b73a3b014d54dfc6afe24
Cypraeidae: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Cypraeidae, common name the cowries (singular: cowry), is a taxonomic family of small to large sea snails. These are marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Cypraeoidea, the cowries and cowry allies.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
ba353413ab8617f74d1f922feffb29b5
Classification
provided by World Register of Marine Species
Alternative views on the classification of Cypraeidae range from uniting most of the species in the genus Cypraea (e.g. Ranson, 1967) to splitting in several subfamilies and dozens of genera (e.g. Schilder & Schilder, 1938 and subsequent papers) for less than 250 extant species). There is no doubt that the family has an old evolutionary history, dating back to the Jurassic, so that existing species are likely to show enough divergence so as to support some taxonomic splitting. The classification of Lorenz (2002) largely coincides with that of Meyer (2003) based on molecular data, so that it was the basis for the classification in subfamilies in Bouchet & Rocroi (2005). Subfamilies are here listed as alternate representation and the genera are direct child taxa of the family Cypraeidae.
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
i18n: Contributor
Gofas, Serge [email]
original
visit source
partner site
World Register of Marine Species
ID
WoRMS:note:166158