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Diagnostic Description
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In recent years, several species of Astyanax with similar counts of scales (33-36 on lateral line, 6-7/5-6 transverse) and anal fin-rays (iv-v + 21-23) to those of A. eigenmanniorum were described from eastern Brazil and northern Argentina (Almiron et al, 2002; Azpelicueta & Garcia, 2000; Azpelicueta et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Casciotta et al., 2003; Casciotta & Almiron, 2004; Melo, 2001; Miquelarena et al., 2005; Miquelarena & Menni, 2005; Mirande et al., 2006). Several of these species, plus a few others, share the presence of gradually decreasing dentary teeth and variably expanded premaxillary teeth. This group of species is composed by A. giton Eigenmann and A. hastatus Myers from eastern Brazil, A. ojiara Azpelicueta & Garcia , A. troya Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron , A. leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almiron , A. pynandi Casciotta, Almiron, Bechara, Roux & Ruiz Diaz , A. ita Almiron, Azpelicueta & Casciotta from northeastern Argentina, and A. chico Casciotta & Almiron from northwestern Argentina. Additionally, all these species with the exceptions of A. hastatus and A. ita have hooks on anal, pelvic, pectoral, and/or dorsal, caudal fins.

The aim of this paper is to describe a new species from the endorheic RíoSalí basin, northwestern Argentina, which shares with the mentioned species the gradually decreasing dentary teeth and expanded premaxillary teeth.

The genus Astyanax is currently diagnosed by a combination of several broadly distributed features among Characidae, and there are no studies supporting neither its monophyly nor the monophyly of some species complex within the genus. We assign this new species to genus Astyanax following its traditional definition (Eigenmann, 1917), considering that the new taxon shares some presumably apomorphic character states with species also assigned to this genus.

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Juan Marcos Mirande, 2007, A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from the endorheic Río Salí basin, Tucumán, northwestern Argentina., Zootaxa, pp. 31-39, vol. 1646
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Juan Marcos Mirande
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Astyanax (fish)
provided by wikipedia EN

Astyanax is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. Some of these fish, like many of their relatives, are kept as aquarium pets and known collectively as tetras. With around 150 described species and new ones being described yearly,[2] this genus is among the largest of the entire order; Hyphessobrycon also has more than 145 species and which one is larger at any one time depends on whether more species have been recently described in one or the other. The blind and colorless cave tetra of Mexico is a famous member of the genus, but its taxonomic position is disputed: Some recognize it as part of the Mexican tetra (A. mexicanus) and this is supported by phylogenetic evidence,[3][4][5][6][7] but others recognize the cave form as a separate species, A. jordani.[2]

The type species is A. argentatus, now regarded as a form of the Mexican tetra (A. mexicanus). The generic name comes from Astyanax, a character in Greek mythology, who was the son of Hector of Troy; in homage to this, several specific epithets also refer to the Iliad.[2]

Taxonomy and systematics

This genus is more or less defined as in 1917 by Carl H. Eigenmann. The lack of comprehensive phylogenetic analyses dealing with this genus is hindering a thorough review and the relationships remain as indeterminate as the monophyly is doubtful. Although included in Astyanax by FishBase, phylogenetic evidence supports moving A. aurocaudatus back to the monotypic genus Carlastyanax.[8]

Species

There are currently 147 recognized species in this genus:

References

 src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Astyanax (genus).
  1. ^ a b c d e f Schmitter-Soto, Juan J. (2016). "A phylogeny of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America". Zootaxa. 4109 (2): 101–130. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4109.2.1..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). Species of Astyanax in FishBase. October 2016 version.
  3. ^ Jeffery W (2009). "Regressive evolution in Astyanax cavefish". Annu. Rev. Genet. 43: 25–47. doi:10.1146/annurev-genet-102108-134216. PMC 3594788.
  4. ^ Dowling T. E., Martasian D. P., Jeffery W. R. (2002). "Evidence for multiple genetic forms with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus". Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 446–455. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004100.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Bradic, Martina; Beerli, Peter; García-de León, Francisco J; Esquivel-Bobadilla, Sarai; Borowsky, Richard L (2012). "Gene flow and population structure in the Mexican blind cavefish complex (Astyanax mexicanus)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-9.
  6. ^ Strecker U., Faúndez V. H., Wilkens H. (2004). "Phylogeography of surface and cave Astyanax (Teleostei) from Central and North America based on cytochrome b sequence data". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 33: 469–481. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.001.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Keene; Yoshizawa; and McGaugh (2016). Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish. pp. 77–87. ISBN 978-0-12-802148-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Mirande, J.M., Jerep, F.C. & Vanegas-Ríos, J.A. (2013). "Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann) with remarks on the phylogeny of the Stevardiinae (Teleostei: Characidae)". Neotropical Ichthyology. 11 (4): 747–766. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252013000400003.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ a b c Lucena, C.A.S.d. & Soares, H.G. (2016). "Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay". Zootaxa. 4072 (1): 101–125. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4072.1.5.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Bertaco, V.A. & Vigo, A.C. (2015). "A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the rio Taquari-Antas basin, southern Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 13 (2): 265–272. doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20140145.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  11. ^ a b c d e Garavello, J.C.; Sampaio, F.A.A. (2010). "Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)" (PDF). Brazilian Journal of Biology. 70 (3): 847–865. doi:10.1590/s1519-69842010000400016.
  12. ^ a b c Lucena, C.A.S.d., Castro, J.B. & Bertaco, V.A. (2013). "Three new species of Astyanax from drainages of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae)". Neotropical Ichthyology. 11 (3): 537–552. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252013000300007.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Bertaco, V.A. (2014). "Astyanax douradilho, a new characid fish from the rio Tramandaí system, southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3794 (3): 492–500. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3794.3.10.
  14. ^ Ingenito, L.F.S. & Duboc, L.F. (2014). "A new species of Astyanax (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Iguaçu basin, southern Brazil". Neotropical Ichthyology. 12 (2): 281–290. doi:10.1590/1982-0224-20130117.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ Oliveira, C.A.M., Abilhoa, V. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2013). "Astyanax guaricana (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the rio Cubatão drainage, Paraná State, Southern Brazil". Neotropical Ichthyology. 11 (2): 291–296. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252013000200007.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  16. ^ Marinho, M.M.F., Camelier, P. & Birindelli, J.L.O. (2015). "Redescription of Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann, 1909 (Characiformes: Characidae), a poorly known and widespread fish from the Amazon, Orinoco and Guiana Shield drainages" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3931 (4): 568–578. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3931.4.6.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  17. ^ Camelier, P. & Zanata, A.M. (2014). "A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins". Journal of Fish Biology. 84 (2): 475–490. doi:10.1111/jfb.12295.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  18. ^ Freitas, M.R.M., Lucinda, P.H.F. & Lucena, C.A.S. (2015). "Redescription of Astyanax novae Eigenmann, 1911 (Teleostei: Characidae)". Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 26 (2): 183–192.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Lucena, C.A.S.d., Bertaco, V.A. & Berbigier, G. (2013). "A new species of Astyanax from headwater streams of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae)". Zootaxa. 3700 (2): 226–236. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3700.2.2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  20. ^ Tagliacollo, V.A., Britzke, R., Silva, G.S.C. & Benine, R.C. (2011). "Astyanax pirapuan: a new characid species from the upper Rio Paraguay system, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil (Characiformes, Characidae)". Zootaxa. 2749: 40–46.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
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Astyanax (fish): Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Astyanax is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. Some of these fish, like many of their relatives, are kept as aquarium pets and known collectively as tetras. With around 150 described species and new ones being described yearly, this genus is among the largest of the entire order; Hyphessobrycon also has more than 145 species and which one is larger at any one time depends on whether more species have been recently described in one or the other. The blind and colorless cave tetra of Mexico is a famous member of the genus, but its taxonomic position is disputed: Some recognize it as part of the Mexican tetra (A. mexicanus) and this is supported by phylogenetic evidence, but others recognize the cave form as a separate species, A. jordani.

The type species is A. argentatus, now regarded as a form of the Mexican tetra (A. mexicanus). The generic name comes from Astyanax, a character in Greek mythology, who was the son of Hector of Troy; in homage to this, several specific epithets also refer to the Iliad.

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2741e890cc8007b95a042d0bfecd1a86