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Wild Strawberry

Fragaria virginiana Mill.

Brief Summary

    Virginia strawberry: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, or common strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is one of two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" is grown only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Fragaria virginiana, Virginia strawberry (also known as mountain or wild strawberry), is a low-growing herbaceous perennial in the Rosaceae (rose family) native north temperate regions of North America, where it is wildly distributed from Newfoundland west to Alberta, and southward to Georgia, Tennessee, and Oklahoma, as well as in the Klamath, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges. The fruits are often collected in the wild, and this species is one of the progenitors (along with F. chiloensis) of the hybrid F.X ananassa, the garden or pineapple strawberry, which produces the bulk of commercially harvested strawberries. F. virginiana plants are characterized by basal rosette of compound leaves, 2.5 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) long, with 3 leaflets, each having 4 to 8 pairs of teeth. The plants are characterized by long arching runners or stolons, and that allow them to reproduce vegetatively as well as by seed. The small, white, 5-parted flowers, 0.5 to 2.5 cm (0.25 to 1 in) across, occur in small clusters. The strawberries are quite small, 0.5 to 2 cm (0.25 to 0.75 in) across, and generally ripen to red. The strawberry is not a true berry, but is a fleshy receptable bearing multiple fruits on the surface—these apparent seeds are actually achenes, small, one-seeded fruits with hard coverings that do not split open (dehisce) when ripe. The achenes on F. virginiana occur in deep pits (as opposed to projecting from the surface, as in the related and often co-occuring F. vesca, woodland strawberry). Virginia strawberries are often wild-harvested, and sometimes cultivated. The small strawberries may be eaten fresh, cooked, or dried. They were important to indigenous people in the Great Lakes and Midwestern Prairie regions and Canada, who used the fruits for food, and prepared tea from the leaves. This species generally grows at altitudes between 1200 and 3300 m. It has a wide distribution in North America, and may grow in hardwood, conifer, and mixed forests, as well swamps (but not in the wettest parts), shores, and clearings. It may be found in drier and sunnier sites than F. vesca. (Bailey et al. 1976, Flora of China 2012, Michigan Flora Online 2011, USDA 2006, van Wyk 2005.)

Comprehensive Description

    Virginia strawberry
    provided by wikipedia

    The Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, or common strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) is one of two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry. Its natural range is confined to North America, in the United States (including Alaska) and Canada, although a popular variety called "Little Scarlet" is grown only in Great Britain, having been imported from the United States in the early 1900s.

    Subspecies

    There are four recognized subspecies:

    • Fragaria virginiana subsp. glauca (formerly known as F. ovalis)
    • Fragaria virginiana subsp. grayana
    • Fragaria virginiana subsp. platypetala
    • Fragaria virginiana subsp. virginiana

    Cytology

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    Fragaria virginiana var. platypetala usually has dense and spreading pubescence on flower and leaf stalks as illustrated by this individual.
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    The fruit is a reddish, fleshy aggregate dotted with "seeds" (achenes) up to 1 cm.

    All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria virginiana is octoploid, having eight sets of these chromosomes for a total of 56. These eight genomes pair as four distinct sets, of two different types, with little or no pairing between sets. The genome composition of the octoploid strawberry species has generally been indicated as AAA'A'BBB'B'. The A-type genomes were likely contributed by diploid ancestors related to Fragaria vesca or similar species, while the B-type genomes seem to descend from a close relative of Fragaria iinumae. The exact process of hybridization and speciation which resulted in the octoploid species is still unknown, but it appears that the genome compositions of both Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana (and by extension the cultivated octoploid strawberry as well) are identical.[1]

    Characteristic

    Fragaria virginiana is also called wild strawberry. It can grow up to 4 inches tall. Its leaf characteristic typically consists of several trifoliate leaves (or has three leaves, as clover) and their leaves are green. Each leaflet is about 3 inches long and 1.5 inches wide. The leaflet is oval shaped and has coarse teeth along the edge except near the bottom. This plant has a five-petaled white flower with numerous yellow-anthered centers. There are ten small green sepals under petals. The seeds of this plant are developed from a pistil in the centre of flower which will become dark-coloured fruit on the strawberry.[2] The fruit of the wild strawberry is smaller than that of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Botanically, the fruit is classified as an aggregate accessory fruit, but it is commonly called a berry.[3][4]

    References

    1. ^ Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America. Harrison R, Luby J, Furnier G, Hancock J., Am J Bot. 1997 May;84(5):612., pp. 612–620.
    2. ^ Wendy Deng and Charlie Marshall, Characteristic point, "Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry) Rosaceae", Retrieved 28 March 2018.
    3. ^ "Fragaria virginiana". Plant Finder. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 28 March 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    4. ^ "Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry)". Go Botany. New England Wildflower Society. Retrieved 28 March 2018.