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Brief Summary

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Ticks are gruesome parasites that suck blood. They don't distinguish much between hosts: dogs, cats, people and other mammals. Ticks carry the infamous Lyme disease. They can let themselves fall out of trees and bushes but the greatest chance of contact is walking through high grass and wild flowers. The most important months to watch out for ticks are from April through October. Strange enough, they seem to be less present in nature areas where cattle roam. A tick usually visits three different hosts during its lifetime. Between two meals, they can go for months without food. Ticks are not only found in woods, but also in the dunes.
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Brief Summary

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There are many genera and species of ticks in the families Ixodidae (hard ticks) that are of public health importance. Some representative genera, and diseases they are known vectors for, include: Amblyomma (tularemia, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever [RMSF], boutonneuse fever); Dermacentor (RMSF, Colorado tick fever, tularemia, Siberian tick typhus, and Central European tick-borne encephalitis, as well as being an agent of tick paralysis); Hyalomma (Siberian tick typhus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever); Ixodes (Lyme disease, babesiosis , human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Russian spring-summer encephalitis); and Rhipicephalus (RMSF and boutonneuse fever).

Members of the family Ixodidae undergo either one-host, two-host or three-host life cycles. During the one-host life cycle, ticks remain on the same host for the larval, nymphal and adult stages, only leaving the host prior to laying eggs. During the two-host life cycle, the tick molts from larva to nymph on the first host, but will leave the host between the nymphal and adult stages. The second host may be the same individual as the first host, the same species, or even a second species. Most ticks of public health importance undergo the three-host life cycle, whereby the tick leaves the host after the larval and nymphal stages. The three hosts are not always the same species, but may be the same species, or even the same individual, depending on host availability for the tick.

(Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health website)

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Ixodidae

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The Ixodidae are the family of hard ticks or scale ticks,[1] one of the two big families of ticks, consisting of over 700 species. They are known as 'hard ticks' because they have a scutum or hard shield, which the other big family of ticks, the 'soft ticks' (Argasidae), lack. They are ectoparasites of a wide range of host species, and some are vectors of pathogens that can cause human disease.

Description

They are distinguished from the Argasidae by the presence of a scutum.[2] In both the nymph and the adult, a prominent gnathosoma (or capitulum, mouth and feeding parts) projects forward from the animal's body; in the Argasidae, conversely, the gnathosoma is concealed beneath the body.

They differ, too, in their lifecycle; Ixodidae that attach to a host bite painlessly and are generally unnoticed, and they remain in place until they engorge and are ready to change their skin; this process may take days or weeks. Some species drop off the host to moult in a safe place, whereas others remain on the same host and only drop off once they are ready to lay their eggs.

Classification

Ixodid wynaad.jpg

There are 702 species in 14 genera.[3]The family contains these genera:[3]

Medical Importance

Many hard ticks are of considerable medical importance, acting as vectors of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, such as Rickettsia and Borrelia.[2] The saliva of female ticks is toxic, causing ascending paralysis in animals and people, known as "tick paralysis." Tick species that are commonly associated with tick paralysis are Dermacentor andersoni, Dermacentor occidentalis, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes holocyclus.[4]

Other tick-borne diseases include Lyme disease, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, anaplasmosis, Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Powassan encephalitis, and Q fever.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ixodidae". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2017. Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia; Ecdysozoa; Panarthropoda; Arthropoda; Chelicerata; Arachnida; Acari; Parasitiformes; Ixodida; Ixodoidea
  2. ^ a b D. H. Molyneux (1993). "Vectors". In Francis E. G. Cox (ed.). Modern parasitology: a textbook of parasitology (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 53–74. ISBN 978-0-632-02585-5. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  3. ^ a b Alberto A. Guglielmone; Richard G. Robbing; Dmitry A. Apanaskevich; Trevor N. Petney; Agustín Estrada-Peña; Ivan G. Horak; Renfu Shao; Stephen C. Barker (2010). "The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida) of the world: a list of valid species names" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2528: 1–28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-24. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
  4. ^ Sirois, Margi (2015). Laboratory Procedures for Veterinary Technicians. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
  5. ^ "CDC - Tick-Borne Diseases - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. 2018-11-14. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-01.

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Ixodidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Ixodidae are the family of hard ticks or scale ticks, one of the two big families of ticks, consisting of over 700 species. They are known as 'hard ticks' because they have a scutum or hard shield, which the other big family of ticks, the 'soft ticks' (Argasidae), lack. They are ectoparasites of a wide range of host species, and some are vectors of pathogens that can cause human disease.

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