dcsimg

Comprehensive Description

    Biology
    provided by Fishbase
    Lives in well-vegetated quiet waters or near submerged trees or rocks in the lee of the river’s main current, lunging out to capture prey (Ref. 5614). Juveniles occur mainly in lagoons and secondary channels (Ref. 7248, 94654), while adults prefer deep main channels and permanent lagoons (Ref. 7248). Large specimens patrol open water of rivers and lakes, never very far from shore (Ref. 246). Predator on fish but also feeds on aquatic and terrestrial insects, shrimps and small crabs (Ref. 13337). Adults often feed on squeakers (Ref. 7248, 13337, 94654). Mouthbrooder (Ref. 246, 13337, 13721) and multiple spawner (Ref. 13337). Constructs shallow nest on sandy or muddy substrate in shallow water (Ref. 13337). Reported to have adverse impact on native fish species in Zimbabwe (Ref. 94654).

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Fishbase
    Frequency of occurence in Caprivi: frequently in sandy streams, common in standing deep water, occasionally in shallow swamps (Ref. 037065).

Life Cycle

    Life Cycle
    provided by Fishbase
    Incubates eggs in the mouth. Constructs a shallow concave nest on a sandy or muddy substrate in fairly shallow water.

Threats

    Threats
    provided by Fishbase
    Least Concern (LC)

Benefits

    Importance
    provided by Fishbase
    fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial