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Grass Carp

Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844)

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 21 years
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Brief Summary

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Grass carp originally came from East-Asia and can reach a length of 120 centimeters. The grass carp was first released in 1977 by water managers as a biological combatant for excessive aquatic plant growth. Since the fish can only spawn successfully when the water temperature rises to 25 degrees Celsius, in combination with a rapidly rising water level, the grass carp is probably unable to reproduce in the Netherlands.
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Diagnostic Description

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No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).
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Diseases and Parasites

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Grass Carp Picornavirus. Viral diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Grass Carp Haemorrhagic Disease Reovirus. Viral diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Unclassifed Grass Carp Virus. Viral diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Columnaris Disease (l.). Bacterial diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Sanguinicola Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Piscinoodinium Infection. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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SVC. Viral diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Water mold Disease (e.). Fungal diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Columnaris Disease (e.). Bacterial diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Columnaris Disease (m.). Bacterial diseases
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Diseases and Parasites

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Fish louse Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Water mold Disease (l.). Fungal diseases
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Dactylogyrus Gill Flukes Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Capillaria Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Gonad Nematodosis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Sporozoa-infection (Myxobolus sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Myxidium Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Trichodina Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Trichodina Infection 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Diseases and Parasites

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Tripartiella Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Bothriocephalus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Trichodina Infection 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Myxobolus Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Anchorworm Disease (Lernaea sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Trichodinosis. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Diseases and Parasites

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Spiroxys Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life Cycle

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Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043).
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Migration

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7 - 8; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 11
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Threats

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Not Evaluated
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Trophic Strategy

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Current velocities range from 0.6 m/s to 1.8 m/s. Feeding and spawning migrations depending on water temperature and water level are reported. The juveniles winter in deep holes in the river bed.
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Biology

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Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
原產於東亞大陸,自西伯利亞至中國的大型河流之平緩落差河段或湖泊。目前已廣泛分布至歐亞大陸與北美洲。早期引進臺灣後,即分布在臺灣西半部的較大型河川與水庫。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

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是臺灣重要養殖魚類,除供食用外,也供作垂釣之用。本種以活魚三吃為主。其膽有毒,雖具有療效,但不宜生食。
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描述

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身體延長,前部略呈圓筒狀,後部稍側扁,腹部圓,無肉稜,尾柄粗狀。頭中大。口大,上頜稍長於下頜。鰓耙數15-19。無鬚。咽頭齒2列,齒式4.2-2.5,側扁呈梳狀,齒面狹凹有溝紋,左右不對稱。體被大型圓鱗,側線完整,略為下彎;側線鱗數39-42。各鰭均無硬棘,背鰭軟條 3(不分枝軟條)+ 7(分枝軟條);臀鰭 3(不分枝軟條)+8(分枝軟條)。體背側青褐色而略帶黃色光澤,腹部銀白色。胸、腹鰭稍帶黃色,餘鰭淺灰色。
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棲地

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初級淡水魚。喜棲息於水流平緩的河川或湖泊中、下層,常成群活動於水草繁生處;性情活潑,游泳迅速。適應力強,以水草等植物性餌料為主要食物。
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Grass carp

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 src=
Adult grass carp
 src=
Juvenile grass carp

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is the species of fish with the largest reported production in aquaculture globally, over five million tonnes per year.[1] It is a large herbivorous freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border.[2] This Asian carp is the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon.

It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control. It is a fish of large, turbid rivers and associated floodplain lakes, with a wide degree of temperature tolerance. Grass carp will enter reproductive condition and spawn at temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F).[2][3]

In the United States, the fish is also known as white amur, which is derived from the Amur River, where the species is probably native, but has never been abundant.[2] This is not to be confused with the white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis), which is not a particularly close relative.

Appearance and anatomy

Grass carp have elongated, chubby, torpedo-shaped body forms. The terminal mouth is slightly oblique with non-fleshy, firm lips, and no barbels.[4] The complete lateral line contains 40 to 42 scales. Broad, ridged, pharyngeal teeth are arranged in a 2, 4-4, 2 formula. The dorsal fin has eight to 10 soft rays, and the anal fin is set closer to the tail than most cyprinids. Body color is dark olive, shading to brownish-yellow on the sides, with a white belly and large, slightly outlined scales.

The grass carp grows very rapidly. Young fish stocked in the spring at 20 cm (7.9 in) will reach over 45 cm (18 in) by fall. The average length is about 60–100 cm (23.5–39.5 in). The maximum length is 2.0 m (6.6 ft) and they grow to 45 kg (99 lb). According to one study, they live an average of five to 9 years, with the oldest surviving 11 years. In Silver Lake Washington there is a thriving population of grass carp passing the 15-year mark.[5] They eat up to three times their own body weight daily. They thrive in small lakes and backwaters that provide an abundant supply of freshwater vegetation.[citation needed]

Ecology

This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools, and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation.[4] In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, kept in suspension by turbulence. The eggs are thought to die if they sink to the bottom.[6]

Adults of the species feed primarily on aquatic plants. They feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged terrestrial vegetation, but may also take detritus, insects, and other invertebrates.[2][7]

Introduced species

Grass carp have been introduced to many countries around the world. In the Northern Hemisphere, countries and territories of introduction include Taiwan, Israel, Japan, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, India, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Denmark, Sweden, Romania, Poland, Italy, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom.[citation needed] In the Southern Hemisphere, they have been introduced to Argentina, Venezuela, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. Grass carp are known to have spawned and established self-reproducing populations in only six of the many larger Northern Hemisphere rivers into which they have been stocked. Their failure to establish populations in other rivers suggests they have quite specific reproductive requirements.[8]

In the United States, the species was first imported in 1963 from Taiwan and Malaysia to aquaculture facilities in Alabama and Arkansas.[9] The first release is believed to have been an accidental escape in 1966 from the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Fish Farming Experimental Station in Stuttgart, Arkansas, followed by planned introductions beginning in 1969.[9][10] Subsequently, there have been widespread authorized, illegal, and accidental introductions; by the 1970s the species had been introduced to 40 states, and it has since been reported in 45 of the country’s 50 states.[9][10] In 2013 it was determined to be reproducing in the Great Lakes Basin.[11] It is still stocked in many states as an effective biocontrol for undesirable aquatic vegetation,[9][10] many species of which are themselves introduced.

Grass carp require long rivers for the survival of the eggs and very young fish.

Use as weed control

 src=
Healthy, life, and swimming grass carp as seen from above

Grass carp were introduced into New Zealand in 1966 to control the growth of aquatic plants. Unlike the other introduced fish brought to New Zealand, the potential value and impact of grass carp was investigated in secure facilities prior to their use in field trials.[12] They are now approved by the New Zealand government for aquatic weed control, although each instance requires specific authorization.[13] In the Netherlands the species was also introduced, in 1973, to control over-abundant aquatic weeds. The release was controlled and regulated by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality.

In both of these countries, control is made easier by the fact that grass carp are very unlikely to naturally reproduce because of their very specific breeding requirements,[13] but elsewhere control is obtained by the use of sterile, triploid fish.[10][14]

Fishing for grass carp

 src=
A grass carp caught using white bread and six-pound test, monofilament line

Grass carp grow large and are strong fighters on a rod and reel, but because of their vegetarian habits and their wariness, they can be difficult to catch.[15] Chumming with corn adds to success. They will eat canned corn, cherry tomatoes, and, despite their primarily herbivorous habits, will also sometimes eat other animals. Chumming with white bread, and a piece of bread pinched on a hook and floated on the surface works well, especially for pond grass carp. The IGFA World record for a grass carp caught on line and hook is 39.75 kg, (87.6 lb) caught in Bulgaria in 2009.[16]

Where grass carp populations are maintained through stocking as a biocontrol for noxious weeds, fishers are typically asked to return any caught to the water alive and unharmed.

The fish are popular among bowfishers where bowfishing for them is legal.

For eating, the fish may be steamed, pan-fried, broiled, or baked.[7]


References

  1. ^ World aquaculture production of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, etc., by principal species in 2013 FAO Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics 2014
  2. ^ a b c d Mandrak and Cudmore. 2004. Biological Synopsis of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine..
  3. ^ Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith. 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valentines, 1844). Food and Aquaculture Organization Synopsis. 135: 86pp.
  4. ^ a b Grass carp in fishbase.org.
  5. ^ Kirk and Socha. Longevity and Persistence of Triploid Grass Carp Stocked into the Santee Cooper Reservoirs of South Carolina. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 41:2003.
  6. ^ Krykhtin, M.L., and E.I. Gorbach. 1981. Reproductive ecology of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, in the Amur Basin. Journal of Ichthyology 21(2):109-123.
  7. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Ctenopharyngodon idella" in FishBase. May 2007 version.
  8. ^ Rowe, D. K., & Schipper, C. M. (1985). An assessment of the impact of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idella) in New Zealand waters. Rotorua N.Z.: Fisheries Research Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.
  9. ^ a b c d Nico, L.G.; Fuller, P.L.; Schofield, P.J.; Neilson, M.E. (15 March 2012). "Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)". Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database. Gainesville, FL: United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 12 January 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  10. ^ a b c d Canover, G; Simmonds, R; Whalen, M, eds. (November 2007). Management and Control Plan for Bighead, Black, Grass, and Silver Carps in the United States (PDF). Washington, DC: Asian Carp Working Group, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. pp. 21–27.
  11. ^ Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, Jeremiah J.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan (2013). "First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin". Journal of Great Lakes Research. 39 (4): 547–554. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2013.09.019. ISSN 0380-1330.
  12. ^ Grass carp in niwa.co.nz.
  13. ^ a b "Grass carp for weed control", DOC
  14. ^ "Triploid Grass Carp Information", texas.gov
  15. ^ Catching Grass Carp Archived 2010-05-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Missouri Department of Conservation.
  16. ^ "Grass carp", IGFA Online. Retrieved 22 June 2016.

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Grass carp: Brief Summary

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The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is the species of fish with the largest reported production in aquaculture globally, over five million tonnes per year. It is a large herbivorous freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border. This Asian carp is the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon.

It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control. It is a fish of large, turbid rivers and associated floodplain lakes, with a wide degree of temperature tolerance. Grass carp will enter reproductive condition and spawn at temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F).

In the United States, the fish is also known as white amur, which is derived from the Amur River, where the species is probably native, but has never been abundant. This is not to be confused with the white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis), which is not a particularly close relative.

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