Pethia stoliczkana is a freshwater tropical cyprinid fish native to the upper Mekong, Salwen, Irrawaddy, Meklong and upper Charo Phraya basins in the countries of Nepal, India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Laos, Thailand, China and Sri Lanka.
P. stoliczkana is silver-green with a vertically elongated black blotch behind the gill opening, and a vertically elongated black blotch on the caudal peduncle. The dorsal fin of a sexually active male is red with a black margin and two rows of black spots. It has no barbels and the last simple dorsal ray is serrated posteriorly. It grows to a maximum length of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) SL.
This fish is one of many barbs undergoing revisions in their taxonomic classification. This species is frequently confused with P. ticto, the Ticto barb or twospot barb, a related and similar species from the same geographic region.