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Pyricularia
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Pyricularia is a genus of fungi and was established by Saccardo in 1880.[1]

The polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia has been resolved and species of Pyricularia s. str. were shown to belong to a monophyletic clade (including Pyricularia grisea isolates), defining the family Pyriculariaceae.[2]

Etymology

The genus Pyricularia is named after the pyriform (pear-shaped) shape of its conidia.[3][4]

Pathogenicity

The Pyricularia genus includes species that are pathogenic on a wide range of monocot plants. For example, Pyricularia oryzae (sexual morph Magnaporthe oryzae), the causal agent of the rice blast disease, is one of the most widely distributed diseases of rice, and is highly destructive leading to up to 30% yield loss worldwide.[5] Pyricularia oryzae isolates from rice are mostly host-specific and infect only few host plants beside rice (barley and Lolium).[6][7][8][9] Pyricularia oryzae isolates from other host plants such as Eleusine, Setaria and Triticum are also host-specific, and unable to infect rice.[7][8][4][9] The closely related species P. oryzae and Pyricularia grisea are indistinguishable in morphology of conidium, perithecium and ascopore. Pyricularia grisea isolates from Digitaria were shown to form a distinct clade by phylogenetic analysis[7][10][11][12][13] and infect crabgrass (Digitaria), but not other hosts.[7][14][15][16] However, some P. oryzae isolates from rice and other grasses and some P. grisea isolates from crabgrass were described to show cross-infectivity on crabgrass and rice, respectively.[13]

Sexual morphs

Sexual morphs were reported for P. grisea and P. oryzae. The genus Pyricularia comprises several other species for which the sexual morph has not yet been discovered.

Species

Taxonomy

Conidia are solitary, pyriform to obclavate, narrowed toward tip, rounded at the base, 2-septate, hyaline to pale brown, with a distinct basal hilum, sometimes with marginal frill.[1]

Type species: Pyricularia grisea Sacc., Michelia 2(no. 6): 20. 1880.

Family

Species of Pyricularia s. str. belong to a monophyletic clade that includes P. oryzae/P. grisea isolates, and was defined as Pyriculariaceae.[2] Pyriculariaceae is sister to the Ophioceraceae, representing two novel families.[2] These clades are clearly distinct from species belonging to the Gaeumannomyces pro parte/Magnaporthiopsis/Nakataea generic complex that are monophyletic and define the Magnaporthaceae family.

References

  1. ^ a b Saccardo, P.A. Michelia 2(no. 6): 20. 1880
  2. ^ a b c Klaubauf, S.; Tharreau, D.; Fournier, E.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Crous, P. W.; de Vries, R. P.; Lebrun, M.-H. (2014-09-01). "Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae)". Studies in Mycology. 79: 85–120. doi:10.1016/j.simyco.2014.09.004. ISSN 0166-0616. PMC 4255532. PMID 25492987..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Bussaban, B.; Lumyong, S.; Lumyong, P.; Seelanan, T.; Park, D. C.; McKenzie, E. H. C.; Hyde, K. D. (2005-09-01). "Molecular and morphological characterization of Pyricularia and allied genera". Mycologia. 97 (5): 1002–1011. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.5.1002. ISSN 0027-5514. PMID 16596952.
  4. ^ a b Murata, Nobuaki; Aoki, Takayuki; Kusaba, Motoaki; Tosa, Yukio; Chuma, Izumi (2013-09-04). "Various species of Pyricularia constitute a robust clade distinct from Magnaporthesalvinii and its relatives in Magnaporthaceae". Journal of General Plant Pathology. 80 (1): 66–72. doi:10.1007/s10327-013-0477-z. ISSN 1345-2630.
  5. ^ Skamnioti, Pari; Gurr, Sarah J. (2009-03-01). "Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease". Trends in Biotechnology. 27 (3): 141–150. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.12.002. ISSN 0167-7799. PMID 19187990.
  6. ^ Ou S.H. CAB International; Wallingford, UK: 1985. Rice diseases.
  7. ^ a b c d KATO, Hajime; YAMAMOTO, Masaaki; YAMAGUCHI-OZAKI, Tomona; KADOUCHI, Hiroyuki; IWAMOTO, Yutaka; NAKAYASHIKI, Hitoshi; TOSA, Yukio; MAYAMA, Shigeyuki; MORI, Naoki (2000-02-01). "Pathogenicity, Mating Ability and DNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Pyricularia Populations Isolated from Gramineae, Bambusideae and Zingiberaceae Plants". Journal of general plant pathology : JGPP. 66 (1): 30–47. doi:10.1007/pl00012919. ISSN 1345-2630.
  8. ^ a b Couch, Brett C.; Fudal, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Tharreau, Didier; Valent, Barbara; van Kim, Pham; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Kohn, Linda M. (2005-06-01). "Origins of host-specific populations of the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in crop domestication with subsequent expansion of pandemic clones on rice and weeds of rice". Genetics. 170 (2): 613–630. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.041780. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1450392. PMID 15802503.
  9. ^ a b Tosa, Yukio; Chuma, Izumi (2014-03-12). "Classification and parasitic specialization of blast fungi". Journal of General Plant Pathology. 80 (3): 202–209. doi:10.1007/s10327-014-0513-7. ISSN 1345-2630.
  10. ^ Couch, Brett C.; Kohn, Linda M. (2002-07-01). "A multilocus gene genealogy concordant with host preference indicates segregation of a new species, Magnaporthe oryzae, from M. grisea". Mycologia. 94 (4): 683–693. doi:10.2307/3761719. ISSN 0027-5514. PMID 21156541.
  11. ^ Hirata, Kenji; Kusaba, Motoaki; Chuma, Izumi; Osue, Jun; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Tosa, Yukio (2007-07-01). "Speciation in Pyricularia inferred from multilocus phylogenetic analysis". Mycological Research. 111 (Pt 7): 799–808. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.05.014. ISSN 0953-7562. PMID 17656080.
  12. ^ Faivre-Rampant, Odile; Thomas, Justine; Allègre, Mathilde; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Tharreau, Didier; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Piffanelli, Pietro (2008-01-01). "Characterization of the model system rice--Magnaporthe for the study of nonhost resistance in cereals". The New Phytologist. 180 (4): 899–910. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02621.x. ISSN 1469-8137. PMID 19138233.
  13. ^ a b Choi, Jaehyuk; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Byung-Ryun; Roh, Jae-Hwan; Oh, In-Seok; Han, Seong-Sook; Lee, Yong-Hwan (2013-01-01). "Comparative analysis of pathogenicity and phylogenetic relationship in Magnaporthe grisea species complex". PLoS One. 8 (2): e57196. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057196. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3582606. PMID 23468934.
  14. ^ Chen, Q. H.; Wang, Y. C.; Zheng, X. B. (2006-08-01). "Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the avirulence gene PRE1, a gene for host-species specificity in the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea". Genome. 49 (8): 873–881. doi:10.1139/g06-043. ISSN 0831-2796. PMID 17036061.
  15. ^ Tsurushima, Tetsu; Don, L. Dinh; Kawashima, Kenji; Murakami, Jiro; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki (2005-11-01). "Pyrichalasin H production and pathogenicity of Digitaria-specific isolates of Pyricularia grisea". Molecular Plant Pathology. 6 (6): 605–613. doi:10.1111/j.1364-3703.2005.00309.x. ISSN 1364-3703. PMID 20565683.
  16. ^ Mackill, A.O.; Bonham, J.M. (1986). "New hosts of Pyricularia oryzae". Plant Disease. 70: 125–128. doi:10.1094/pd-70-125.

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Pyricularia: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Pyricularia is a genus of fungi and was established by Saccardo in 1880.

The polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia has been resolved and species of Pyricularia s. str. were shown to belong to a monophyletic clade (including Pyricularia grisea isolates), defining the family Pyriculariaceae.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN
ID
3c7ac46b02701f24b299ccfb06b8a304