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Brief Summary

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The spider family Oonopidae (goblin spiders) includes 1135 described species, with around 30 known from North America north of Mexico (mainly from Florida and the southwestern United States), including the European Tapinesthis inermis, which has been introduced to North America (Platnick 2013). The number of known species is likely to increase substantially as a result of ongoing investigations.

Most oonopids are tiny (typically no more than a few millimeters in length), usually six-eyed spiders that occur in leaf litter or similar situations (such as wood rat nests) or under rocks. Some enter homes, especially in the northern part of the range. These spiders build silken molting chambers, but no web. Oonopids move with short, jerky forward and backward motions, although they are capable of running rapidly, and some species can hop (e.g., Orchestina saltitans in the eastern United States). Some species are known only as females and are believed to be parthenogenetic (e.g., Heteroonops spinimanus; Saaristo 2001). Ubick (2005) reviewed the taxonomic history of this family in North America north of Mexico and noted that the family was badly in need of revision.

(Ubick 2005; Bradley 2013)

The Oonopidae have, in fact,been the focus of an international multi-investigator Planetary Bodiversity Inventory funded by the National Science Foundation. More information about this effort, and about oonopids, can be found on the Oonopidae website at the American Museum of Natural History.

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Oonopidae

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Oonopidae, also known as is a goblin spiders, is a family of spiders consisting of over 1,600 described species in about 113 genera worldwide,[1] with total species diversity estimated at 2000 to 2500 species.[2] The type genus of the family is Oonops Keyserling, 1835.

Goblin spiders are generally tiny, measuring about 1 to 3 millimeters. Some have scuta, hardened plates on their abdomens. Oonopids usually have six eyes, the anterior median eyes having been lost. However, four-eyed (Opopaea viamao), two-eyed (e.g. Coxapopha, Diblemma) and even completely eyeless species (e.g. Cousinea, the cave-dwelling Blanioonops) are also known. The family is permeated with unusual morphological traits, many of which are limited to males. Examples include heavily modified mouthparts (e.g. Coxapopha, Xyccarph), sternal pouches (sometimes alternatively called holsters; e.g. Grymeus) and extensions of the carapace (e.g. Ferchestina, Unicorn). The male pedipalps are also often highly modified. The genus Opopaea, for example, exhibits an expanded palpal patella while male Ischnothyreus are characterized by completely sclerotized, pitch-black pedipalps. Members of the genus Orchestina are believed to be able to jump, as both sexes have greatly enlarged femora on the fourth leg pair.

Oonopidae are seldom seen by people as they are too small to be easily noticed. They are generally found in the leaf litter layer and under rocks, but they also constitute a significant component of the spider fauna living in the canopy of tropical rainforests. Three blind Afrotropical genera (Anophthalmoonops, Caecoonops, Termitoonops) are exclusively found in termite nests. A few species, such as the pantropical Heteroonops spinimanus and Triaeris stenaspis, are thought to be parthenogenetic as no males have yet been collected.

Fossil record

Oonopidae are frequently encountered as subfossils preserved in copals and as fossils preserved in amber. Oonopids even occur in more amber deposits than any other spider family, which may be accounted for by their widespread distribution, small size, and wandering behaviour, as amber appears to be biased towards trapping such spiders. In contrast, sedimentary fossils of Oonopidae are unknown.

Most fossil oonopids described from amber are assigned to the extant genus Orchestina. This genus was already widespread by the end of the Cretaceous, as indicated by specimens found in amber dating back approximately 100 million years. This makes Orchestina the oldest extant spider genus along with the Archaeidae. Orchestina's fossil record even includes a pair of spiders that were entombed during copulation.

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[1]

  • Amazoonops Ott, Ruiz, Brescovit & Bonaldo, 2017
  • Anophthalmoonops Benoit, 1976 — Angola
  • Antoonops Fannes & Jocqué, 2008 — Africa
  • Aposphragisma Thoma, 2014 — Asia
  • Aprusia Simon, 1893 — Sri Lanka, India
  • Aschnaoonops Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011 — Suriname, Colombia, Trinidad
  • Australoonops Hewitt, 1915 — South Africa, Mozambique
  • Bannana Tong & Li, 2015 — China
  • Bidysderina Platnick, Dupérré, Berniker & Bonaldo, 2013
  • Bipoonops Bolzern, 2014 — Ecuador
  • Birabenella Grismado, 2010 — Argentina, Chile
  • Blanioonops Simon & Fage, 1922 — East Africa
  • Brignolia Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1983 — Asia, Africa, Australia
  • Caecoonops Benoit, 1964 — Congo
  • Camptoscaphiella Caporiacco, 1934 — Asia
  • Cavisternum Baehr, Harvey & Smith, 2010 — Australia, Sri Lanka
  • Cortestina Knoflach, 2009 — Austria, Italy
  • Costarina Platnick & Dupérré, 2011 — Central America, Colombia, Mexico
  • Cousinea Saaristo, 2001 — Seychelles
  • Coxapopha Platnick, 2000 — South America, Panama
  • Dalmasula Platnick, Szüts & Ubick, 2012 — South Africa, Namibia
  • Diblemma O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1908 — Seychelles
  • Dysderina Simon, 1892 — Asia, Africa, South America
  • Dysderoides Fage, 1946 — Thailand, India
  • Emboonops Bolzern, Platnick & Berniker, 2015 — Mexico
  • Escaphiella Platnick & Dupérré, 2009 — North America, South America, Central America, Jamaica
  • Farqua Saaristo, 2001 — Seychelles
  • Gamasomorpha Karsch, 1881 — Asia, Africa, South America, Oceania, North America, Panama, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Gradunguloonops Grismado, Izquierdo, González M. & Ramírez, 2015
  • Grymeus Harvey, 1987 — Australia, Sri Lanka
  • Guaraguaoonops Brescovit, Rheims & Bonaldo, 2012
  • Guatemoonops Bolzern, Platnick & Berniker, 2015
  • Heteroonops Dalmas, 1916 — Caribbean, Costa Rica, Mexico, Germany, Africa, Australia
  • Hexapopha Platnick, Berniker & Víquez, 2014 — Costa Rica
  • Himalayana Grismado, 2014 — India, Nepal
  • Hortoonops Platnick & Dupérré, 2012
  • Hypnoonops Benoit, 1977 — Congo
  • Hytanis Simon, 1893 — Venezuela
  • Ischnothyreus Simon, 1893 — Asia, Oceania, Africa, Europe
  • Kachinia Tong & Li, 2018 — Myanmar
  • Kapitia Forster, 1956 — New Zealand
  • Khamiscar Platnick & Berniker, 2015 — Madagascar
  • Khamisia Saaristo & van Harten, 2006 — Israel, Yemen, Kenya
  • Khamisina Platnick & Berniker, 2015 — Nigeria, Kenya, Congo
  • Khamisoides Platnick & Berniker, 2015 — Virgin Is.
  • Kijabe Berland, 1914 — Kenya
  • Lionneta Benoit, 1979 — Seychelles
  • Longoonops Platnick & Dupérré, 2010 — Central America, Jamaica
  • Lucetia Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1983 — Cuba, Venezuela
  • Malagiella Ubick & Griswold, 2011 — Madagascar
  • Megabulbus Saaristo, 2007 — Israel
  • Megaoonops Saaristo, 2007 — Israel
  • Melchisedec Fannes, 2010 — Niger
  • Molotra Ubick & Griswold, 2011 — Madagascar
  • Neotrops Grismado & Ramírez, 2013 — South America, Panama, Trinidad
  • Neoxyphinus Birabén, 1953 — South America, Caribbean
  • Nephrochirus Simon, 1910 — Namibia
  • Niarchos Platnick & Dupérré, 2010 — Ecuador, Colombia, Peru
  • Noideattella Álvarez-Padilla, Ubick & Griswold, 2012 — Madagascar, Seychelles
  • Noonops Platnick & Berniker, 2013 — Mexico, United States
  • Oonopinus Simon, 1893 — Europe, Africa, Venezuela, China, Samoa, United States
  • Oonopoides Bryant, 1940 — Central America, Venezuela, North America, Cuba
  • Oonops Templeton, 1835 — South America, Caribbean, Europe, Africa, North America, Georgia, Oceania, Central America
  • Opopaea Simon, 1892 — Oceania, Africa, Asia, North America, Panama, South America, Europe
  • Orchestina Simon, 1882 — Africa, Asia, South America, North America, Central America, Europe, Caribbean, Oceania
  • Ovobulbus Saaristo, 2007 — Israel, Egypt
  • Paradysderina Platnick & Dupérré, 2011 — South America
  • Patri Saaristo, 2001 — Seychelles
  • Pelicinus Simon, 1892 — Asia, Brazil, Africa, Australia
  • Pescennina Simon, 1903 — Central America, South America, Mexico
  • Plectoptilus Simon, 1905 — Indonesia
  • Ponsoonops Bolzern, 2014 — Central America, Mexico, South America, Cuba
  • Predatoroonops Brescovit, Rheims & Ott, 2012
  • Prethopalpus Baehr, Harvey, Burger & Thoma, 2012 — Oceania, Asia
  • Prida Saaristo, 2001 — Seychelles
  • Prodysderina Platnick, Dupérré, Berniker & Bonaldo, 2013 — Venezuela
  • Pseudodysderina Platnick, Berniker & Bonaldo, 2013 — South America
  • Pseudoscaphiella Simon, 1907 — South Africa
  • Puan Izquierdo, 2012 — Argentina
  • Reductoonops Platnick & Berniker, 2014 — Central America, Mexico, South America, Jamaica
  • Scaphidysderina Platnick & Dupérré, 2011 — Ecuador, Peru, Colombia
  • Scaphiella Simon, 1892 — Central America, Caribbean, South America, North America
  • Scaphioides Bryant, 1942 — Caribbean, North America, Costa Rica
  • Scaphios Platnick & Dupérré, 2010 — Ecuador, Colombia
  • Semibulbus Saaristo, 2007 — Israel
  • Semidysderina Platnick & Dupérré, 2011 — Colombia
  • Setayeshoonops Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011 — Suriname
  • Sicariomorpha Ott & Harvey, 2015 — Malaysia
  • Silhouettella Benoit, 1979 — Asia, Africa
  • Simlops Bonaldo, Ott & Ruiz, 2014 — South America, Trinidad
  • Simonoonops Harvey, 2002 — South America, Caribbean
  • Socotroonops Saaristo & van Harten, 2002 — Yemen
  • Spinestis Saaristo & Marusik, 2009 — Ukraine
  • Stenoonops Simon, 1892 — North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America, Seychelles
  • Sulsula Simon, 1882 — Algeria, Egypt, Sudan
  • Tapinesthis Simon, 1914 — Europe
  • Telchius Simon, 1893 — Algeria, Morocco, South Africa
  • Termitoonops Benoit, 1964 — Congo
  • Tinadysderina Platnick, Berniker & Bonaldo, 2013
  • Tolegnaro Álvarez-Padilla, Ubick & Griswold, 2012
  • Toloonops Bolzern, Platnick & Berniker, 2015 — Mexico
  • Triaeris Simon, 1892 — Asia, Africa, Australia
  • Tridysderina Platnick, Berniker & Bonaldo, 2013
  • Trilacuna Tong & Li, 2007 — Asia
  • Unicorn Platnick & Brescovit, 1995 — Argentina, Chile, Bolivia
  • Varioonops Bolzern & Platnick, 2013 — Central America, South America
  • Vientianea Tong & Li, 2013 — Laos
  • Volborattella Saucedo & Ubick, 2015
  • Wanops Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 — Mexico
  • Xestaspis Simon, 1884 — Asia, Oceania, Africa
  • Xiombarg Brignoli, 1979 — Brazil, Argentina
  • Xyccarph Brignoli, 1978 — Brazil
  • Xyphinus Simon, 1893 — Asia, Australia
  • Yumates Chamberlin, 1924 — Mexico
  • Zyngoonops Benoit, 1977 — Congo

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Family: Oonopidae Simon, 1890". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  2. ^ Busschere, C., Fannes, W., Henrard, A., Gaublomme, E., Jocqué, R., & Baert, L. (2014). "Unravelling the goblin spiders puzzle: rDNA phylogeny of the family Oonopidae (Araneae)" (PDF). Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny. 72 (2): 177–192.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Oonopidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Oonopidae, also known as is a goblin spiders, is a family of spiders consisting of over 1,600 described species in about 113 genera worldwide, with total species diversity estimated at 2000 to 2500 species. The type genus of the family is Oonops Keyserling, 1835.

Goblin spiders are generally tiny, measuring about 1 to 3 millimeters. Some have scuta, hardened plates on their abdomens. Oonopids usually have six eyes, the anterior median eyes having been lost. However, four-eyed (Opopaea viamao), two-eyed (e.g. Coxapopha, Diblemma) and even completely eyeless species (e.g. Cousinea, the cave-dwelling Blanioonops) are also known. The family is permeated with unusual morphological traits, many of which are limited to males. Examples include heavily modified mouthparts (e.g. Coxapopha, Xyccarph), sternal pouches (sometimes alternatively called holsters; e.g. Grymeus) and extensions of the carapace (e.g. Ferchestina, Unicorn). The male pedipalps are also often highly modified. The genus Opopaea, for example, exhibits an expanded palpal patella while male Ischnothyreus are characterized by completely sclerotized, pitch-black pedipalps. Members of the genus Orchestina are believed to be able to jump, as both sexes have greatly enlarged femora on the fourth leg pair.

Oonopidae are seldom seen by people as they are too small to be easily noticed. They are generally found in the leaf litter layer and under rocks, but they also constitute a significant component of the spider fauna living in the canopy of tropical rainforests. Three blind Afrotropical genera (Anophthalmoonops, Caecoonops, Termitoonops) are exclusively found in termite nests. A few species, such as the pantropical Heteroonops spinimanus and Triaeris stenaspis, are thought to be parthenogenetic as no males have yet been collected.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN