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Calumma

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Calumma is a genus of chameleons endemic and restricted to Madagascar. The species formerly named Calumma tigris was transferred to the genus Archaius by Townsend et al.[1] when they found that it is more closely related to Rieppeleon than to Calumma. The oldest fossil of the genus is known from the Early Miocene of Kenya, showing that the genus originated in Africa.[2]

Species groups

Four species groups are recognised within the genus Calumma (originally proposed by Glaw & Vences in 1994[3]), some of which may be only phenetic, while others are phylogenetically supported:[4][5]

Calumma furcifer species group

Contents: Calumma furcifer, C. gastrotaenia, C. marojezense, C. guillaumeti, C. andringitraense, C. glawi, C. vencesi

Species characterised by typically green body colouration, sleek body form, and generally no occipital lobes (flaps of skin posterior to the head; present only in C. glawi) and no rostral appendage (present only in males of C. furcifer).[3]

Calumma cucullatum species group

Contents: Calumma cucullatum, C. crypticum, C. amber, C. tsaratananense, C. hafahafa, C. hilleniusi, C. peltierorum, C. malthe, C. brevicorne, C. jejy, C. tsycorne

Species characterised by distinct occipital lobes and generally a single bony rostral appendage that is larger in males than females.[3]

Calumma nasutum species group

Contents: Calumma nasutum, C. fallax, C. gallus, C. guibei, C. boettgeri, C. linotum, C. gehringi, C. uetzi, C. lefona, C. juliae, C. vatosoa, C. vohibola, C. peyrierasi, C. roaloko

Species characterised by a soft dermal rostral appendage (generally present in males and absent in females).[3] The following members possess occipital lobes: C. guibei, C. boettgeri, C. linotum, C. gehringi, C. uetzi, C. lefona, C. roaloko, and C. juliae.[6][7] These taxa are collectively referred to as the C. guibei species complex.[4][6] Occipital lobes are absent from all other species.[3] The assignment of C. peyrierasi to this group remains a subject of uncertainty.[8]

Calumma parsonii species group

Contents: Calumma globifer, C. ambreense, C. oshaughnessyi, C. parsonii, C. capuroni

Species characterised by large body size, males with paired rostral appendages, and some species with small occipital lobes.[3]

Species

The following 38 species are recognized as being valid as of October 2018:

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Calumma.

References

  1. ^ Townsend TM, Tolley KA, Glaw F, Böhme W, Vences M (2010). "Eastward from Africa: palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles islands". Biology Letters. 7 (2): 225–228. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701. PMC 3061160. PMID 20826471.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Čerňanský, Andrej; Herrel, Anthony; Kibii, Job M.; Anderson, Christopher V.; Boistel, Renaud; Lehmann, Thomas (December 2020). "The only complete articulated early Miocene chameleon skull (Rusinga Island, Kenya) suggests an African origin for Madagascar's endemic chameleons". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 109. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-57014-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6954250. PMID 31924840.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar, Second Edition. Cologne, Germany: Vences & Glaw Verlags GbR / Serpents Tale. 480 pp. ISBN 978-3929449-01-3.
  4. ^ a b Prötzel, David; Vences, Miguel; Scherz, Mark D.; Vieites, David R.; Glaw, Frank (2017). "Splitting and lumping: An integrative taxonomic assessment of Malagasy chameleons in the Calumma guibei complex results in the new species C. gehringi sp. nov" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 67: 231–249.
  5. ^ Tolley, Krystal A.; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel (2013-05-22). "Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1759): 20130184. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0184. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3619509. PMID 23536596.
  6. ^ a b Prötzel, David; Vences, Miguel; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Scherz, Mark D.; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Glaw, Frank (2018). "Endangered beauties: micro-CT cranial osteology, molecular genetics and external morphology reveal three new species of chameleons in the Calumma boettgeri complex (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 184 (2): 471–498. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx112.
  7. ^ a b Prötzel, David; Lambert, Shea M.; Andrianasolo, Ginah Tsiorisoa; Hutter, Carl R.; Cobb, Kerry A.; Scherz, Mark D.; Glaw, Frank (2018-10-19). "The smallest 'true chameleon' from Madagascar: a new, distinctly colored species of the Calumma boettgeri complex (Squamata, Chamaeleonidae)". Zoosystematics and Evolution. 94 (2): 409–423. doi:10.3897/zse.94.27305. ISSN 1860-0743.
  8. ^ Prötzel, David; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Glaw, Frank (2016-08-01). "No longer single! Description of female Calumma vatosoa (Squamata, Chamaeleonidae) including a review of the species and its systematic position". Zoosystematics and Evolution. 92 (1): 13–21. doi:10.3897/zse.92.6464. ISSN 1860-0743.
  9. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Calumma peyrierasi, p. 205).
  10. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339029391_Untangling_the_trees_Revision_of_the_Calumma_nasutum_complex_Squamata_Chamaeleonidae
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Calumma: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Calumma is a genus of chameleons endemic and restricted to Madagascar. The species formerly named Calumma tigris was transferred to the genus Archaius by Townsend et al. when they found that it is more closely related to Rieppeleon than to Calumma. The oldest fossil of the genus is known from the Early Miocene of Kenya, showing that the genus originated in Africa.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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