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Brief Summary

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The spider family Philodromidae (running crab spiders) includes 542 described species, nearly a hundred of which are known from North America north of Mexico (Philodromus dispar is native to Europe and Central Asia, but has been introduced to the United States and Canada) (Platnick 2013).

Philodromids are two-clawed, flat-bodied, somewhat crab-like hunting spiders (Dondale 2005). Like thomisids, many species hold their legs in a laterigrade position (i.e., the legs extend sidewise and the femora, especially, are twisted so that the front surface faces up). The eight eyes are at the front of a narrow cephalic region (i.e., the forward part, or "head" region, of the cephalothorax) and the cephalothorax is broad and often as wide as it is long. These spiders were formerly considered to comprise a subfamily of Thomisidae, but Homann (1975, cited in Dondale 2005) concluded that they were independent of the thomisids, a finding confirmed by the molecular phylogenetic analysis by Benjamin et al. (2008). In comparison with philodromids, thomisids tend to have more compact and globose bodies, with thicker legs; raptorial spines on the first pair of legs; prominent eye tubercles ("bumps"); and no claw tufts or scopulae, or distinct brushes of hair, on their legs.

Philodromids lead an active predatory lifestyle on plant stems and leaves. Some are found only on coniferous trees, others only on deciduous trees; a small number live in deserts. Life histories have been studied by Dondale (1961) and Putnam (1967) and Haynes and Sisojevic (1966) studied predatory behavior. Dondale (1964, 1967) used courtship behavior to distinguish some closely related species.

(Dondale 2005; Bradley 2013)

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Philodromidae

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Philodromidae, also known as philodromid crab spiders and running crab spiders, is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Tord Tamerlan Teodor Thorell in 1870.[1] It contains over 600 species in thirty genera. Most are dull colored- brown, gray, yellowish or mottled with a leaf-like cardiac mark on the anterior dorsal abdomen, and seldom reach above 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long. None of the species build webs, but they do use silk for draglines and egg sacs.

It is superficially similar to the "true" crab spiders, but these families are not as closely related as previously thought.[2] Philodromids tend to have few true setae (hairs or spines) on their bodies and lack the congruent eye tubercles of some crab spiders. Their second legs are usually the longer of the four pairs of walking legs. It is most evident in Ebo, where the second pair of legs are twice as long as the first pair in some species.

The most common genus is Philodromus which is widespread, similar to Ebo.[3] Other common genera include the elongate grass-dwelling Tibellus and the widespread Thanatus, which includes the house crab spider that commonly captures flies on and in buildings.[4]

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[3]

  • Apollophanes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 — North America, Asia, Trinidad, Panama, Ecuador
  • Bacillocnemis Mello-Leitão, 1938 — Argentina
  • Berlandiella Mello-Leitão, 1929 — Brazil, Argentina
  • Cleocnemis Simon, 1886 — South America
  • Ebo Keyserling, 1884 — Asia, North America, Argentina
  • Eminella Özdikmen, 2007 — Argentina
  • Fageia Mello-Leitão, 1929 — Brazil
  • Gephyrellula Strand, 1932 — Brazil
  • Gephyrina Simon, 1895 — South America, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Gephyrota Strand, 1932 — Asia, Africa, Australia
  • Halodromus Muster, 2009 — Spain, Asia, Africa
  • Hirriusa Strand, 1932 — Namibia, South Africa
  • Metacleocnemis Mello-Leitão, 1929 — Brazil
  • Pagiopalus Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • Paracleocnemis Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942 — Argentina
  • Pedinopistha Karsch, 1880 — Hawaii
  • Petrichus Simon, 1886 — South America
  • Philodromops Mello-Leitão, 1943 — Brazil
  • Philodromus Walckenaer, 1826 — North America, Asia, Africa, Oceania, Europe, Caribbean, Central America, Venezuela
  • Procleocnemis Mello-Leitão, 1929 — Brazil
  • Psellonus Simon, 1897 — India
  • Pseudopsellonus Balogh, 1936 — Papua New Guinea
  • Pulchellodromus Wunderlich, 2012 — Algeria, Europe, Asia
  • Rhysodromus Schick, 1965 — Asia, North America
  • Suemus Simon, 1895 — Sierra Leone, Vietnam, South Africa
  • Thanatus C. L. Koch, 1837 — Africa, Asia, North America, Europe, South America
  • Tibellus Simon, 1875 — North America, Asia, Africa, South America, Cuba, Italy, Australia
  • Tibitanus Simon, 1907 — Namibia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea
  • Titanebo Gertsch, 1933 — United States, Mexico
  • Vacchellia Caporiacco, 1935 — Karakorum

incertae sedis

See also

References

  1. ^ Thorell, T. (1870). "On European spiders". Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis. 3 (7): 109–242.
  2. ^ Homann, H. (1975). "Die Stellung der Thomisidae und der Philodromidae im System der Araneae (Chelicerata, Arachnida)". Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere. 80 (3): 181–202. doi:10.1007/BF00285652.
  3. ^ a b "Family: Philodromidae Thorell, 1870". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  4. ^ Kulczyński, W. (1903). "Aranearum et Opilionum species in insula Creta a comite Dre Carolo Attems collectae". Bulletin International de l'Academie des Sciences de Cracovie. 1903: 50.

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Philodromidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Philodromidae, also known as philodromid crab spiders and running crab spiders, is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Tord Tamerlan Teodor Thorell in 1870. It contains over 600 species in thirty genera. Most are dull colored- brown, gray, yellowish or mottled with a leaf-like cardiac mark on the anterior dorsal abdomen, and seldom reach above 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long. None of the species build webs, but they do use silk for draglines and egg sacs.

It is superficially similar to the "true" crab spiders, but these families are not as closely related as previously thought. Philodromids tend to have few true setae (hairs or spines) on their bodies and lack the congruent eye tubercles of some crab spiders. Their second legs are usually the longer of the four pairs of walking legs. It is most evident in Ebo, where the second pair of legs are twice as long as the first pair in some species.

The most common genus is Philodromus which is widespread, similar to Ebo. Other common genera include the elongate grass-dwelling Tibellus and the widespread Thanatus, which includes the house crab spider that commonly captures flies on and in buildings.

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