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Weeping Bolete

Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel 1796

Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Suillus granulatus
    provided by wikipedia

    Suillus granulatus Körnchen-Röhrling Suillus granulatus 1.jpg Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Boletales Family: Suillaceae Genus: Suillus Species: S. granulatus Binomial name Suillus granulatus
    (L.) Roussel (1796)
    Synonyms[1]
    • Boletus granulatus L. (1753)

    Suillus granulatus is a pored mushroom of the genus Suillus in the family Suillaceae. It is similar to the related S. luteus, but can be distinguished by its ringless stalk. Like S. luteus, it is an edible mushroom that often grows in a symbiosis (mycorrhiza) with pine. It has been commonly known as the weeping bolete,[2] or the granulated bolete.[3]

    Taxonomy

    Suillus granulatus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as a species of Boletus.[4] It was given its current name by French naturalist Henri François Anne de Roussel when he transferred it to Suillus in 1796.[1] Suillus is an ancient term for fungi, and is derived from the word "swine". Granulatus means "fine grain".[5]

    Description

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    Suillus granulatus showing 'milky droplets' on pores.

    The orange-brown, to brown-yellow cap is viscid (sticky) when wet, and shiny when dry, and is usually 3 to 9 cm in diameter. The stem is pale yellow, of uniform thickness, with tiny brownish granules at the apex. It is without a ring. The tubes and pores are small, pale yellow, and exude pale milky droplets when young. The flesh is also pale yellow.

    Suillus granulatus is often confused with Suillus luteus, which is another common and widely distributed species occurring in the same habitat. S. luteus has conspicuous a partial veil and ring, and lacks the milky droplets on the pores.[6]

    Bioleaching

    Bioleaching is the industrial process of using living organisms to extract metals from ores, typically where there is only a trace amount of the metal to be extracted. It has been found that Suillus granulatus can extract trace elements (Titanium, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium and Lead) from wood ash and apatite.[7]

    Distribution and habitat

    Grows with Pinus (pine trees) on both calcareous and acid soils, and sometimes occurs in large numbers. Suillus granulatus is the most widespread pine-associating Suillus species in warm climates.[8] It is common in Britain, Europe, and North America. It is associated with Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in South Korea.[6] A native to the Northern Hemisphere, the fungus has been introduced into Australia under Pinus radiata. It is also found in Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, and southern Chile.[9]

    Edibility

    Suillus granulatus is edible and fair. Like all Suillus species, the tubes are best removed before cooking. It is sometimes included in commercially produced mushroom preserves. Has been known to cause mild stomach upsets. The fruit bodies—low in fat, high in fiber and carbohydrates, and a source of nutraceutical compounds—can be considered a functional food.[10]

    Toxicity

    Suillus granulatus sometimes causes contact dermatitis to those who handle it.

    See also

    References

    • R.Phillips-Mushrooms 2006
    • Marcel Bonn-Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North West Europe.
    1. ^ a b "GSD Species Synonymy: Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Missing or empty |url= (help).mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Eppinger M. (2006). Field Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84537-474-7.
    3. ^ McKnight VB, McKnight KH (1987). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America. Peterson Field Guides. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-395-91090-0.
    4. ^ Linnaeus C (1753). "Tomus II". Species Plantarum (in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 1177.
    5. ^ David Arora (1986). Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-169-5.
    6. ^ a b Min YJ, Park MS, Fong JJ, Seok SJ, Han S-K, Lim YW (2014). "Molecular Taxonomical Re-classification of the Genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray in South Korea". Mycobiology. 42 (3): 221–28. doi:10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.3.221. PMC 4206787. PMID 25346598.
    7. ^ Gadd, Geoffrey Michael (2010). "Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation". Microbiology. 156 (3): 609–643. doi:10.1099/mic.0.037143-0. PMID 20019082.
    8. ^ Richardson DM. (2000). Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-521-78910-3.
    9. ^ Simberloff D, Rejmanek M (2010). Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-520-94843-3.
    10. ^ Reis FS, Stojković D, Barros L, Glamočlija J, Cirić A, Soković M, Martins A, Vasconcelos MH, Morales P, Ferreira IC (2014). "Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?" (PDF). Food & Function. 5 (11): 2861–9. doi:10.1039/C4FO00619D. hdl:10198/12054. PMID 25231126.