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Trichophyton rubrum (Castell.) Sabour. 1911

Brief Summary

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español

    Trichophyton rubrum es un hongo dermatofito antropofílico (que afecta al ser humano). Es la causa más frecuente de enfermedades de la piel como el pie de atleta, prurito del jockey y tiña. Este hongo se describió por primera vez por Malmsten en 1845. El crecimiento de las colonias de Trichophyton es de lento a moderadamente rápido. La coloración de frente puede ser blanco, beige amarillento claro o violeta rojizo. Reverso pálido, amarillento, marrón o marrón rojizo. Así mismo este hongo es la causa más común de infecciones en las uñas.


     src= Pie de atleta  title= Obtenido de «https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trichophyton_rubrum&oldid=83553868» Categorías: PezizomycotinaEnfermedades cutáneasDermatofitosis
    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota, class Euascomycetes. It is an exclusively clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, and is the most common cause of athlete's foot, fungal infection of nail, jock itch, and ringworm worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum was first described by Malmsten in 1845 and is currently considered to be a complex of species that comprises multiple, geographically patterned morphotypes, several of which have been formally described as distinct taxa, including T. raubitschekii, T. gourvilii, T. megninii and T. soudanense.

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français
    Trichophyton rubrum est un champignon filamenteux microscopique rattaché aux Ascomycota. Il n'a pas de forme sexuée connue. Il a une affinité marquée pour la kératine (protéine de la couche cornée de l'épiderme, et qui constitue les ongles, poils et cheveux).

    Ce dermatophyte anthropophile (qui infecte l'Homme) est le responsable principal des dermatophytoses des pieds (ou pieds d'athlète, tinea pedis) et des ongles (onychomycose, onyxis, teigne de l'ongle aussi dite tinea unguium). C'est en 2013 le dermatophyte le plus fréquemment isolé dans les laboratoires à partir des mycoses des pieds en Europe et en Amérique du Nord (il y est responsable de plus de 90 % des cas d'onychomycose). Dans certaines régions, comme l'Afrique, il est principalement responsable de la mycose de la peau glabre (herpès circiné, tinea corporis) et des cheveux (teigne, tinea capitis).

    Les médecins signalent que ce champignon tend à coloniser sur le corps un nombre de plus en plus grand d'autres endroits du corps que ce qui a été signalé précédemment. Un ongle en bonne santé y est généralement insensible.

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( German )
    provided by wikipedia Deutsch

    Trichophyton rubrum ist ein beim Menschen die Hornsubstanz besiedelnder Hautpilz (anthropophiler Dermatophyt). Er kann beim Menschen zahlreiche Dermatophytosen auslösen, besonders häufig kommt der Erreger gegenwärtig beim Fuß-, Nagelpilz und der Tinea inguinalis vor. Wie alle Dermatophyten ernährt sich Trichophyton rubrum von Keratin. Die Übertragung von Mensch zu Mensch erfolgt durch direkten oder indirekten Kontakt. Selten kommen auch Übertragungen vom Menschen auf Tiere vor. Die Teleomorphe, also das geschlechtliche Stadium von T. rubrum, ist bislang unbekannt.

     src= Kultur von T. rubrum  src= Durch T. rubrum verursachter Nagelpilz

    Im Nativpräparat zeigt sich T. rubrum bei Erkrankungen der Haut in Form eines weitverzweigten Myzels, bei Nagelpilz als Sporenketten. Auf einem Sabouraud-Dextrose-Agar bildet der Pilz weiße Kolonien mit Radiärfaltung, die im Randbezirk grünlich oder rot bis violett werden; in der Woodlicht-Diagnostik zeigt er keine Fluoreszenz. Auf dem Mycosel-Medium bildet sich zunächst ein gelber, später roter Rand. Auf beiden Nährboden ist die Unterseite der Kultur weinrot. Im mikroskopischen Bild ist er durch zahlreiche, birnenförmige und ährenförmig angeordnete Mikrokonidien gekennzeichnet. Makrokonidien sind selten und zigarrenförmig mit 3–8 Kammern. Sporen sind nur selten sichtbar.

    T. rubrum war vor allem in den USA und im Nahen Osten verbreitet. Mittlerweile kommt er weltweit vor, seine Häufigkeit nimmt auch in Europa stark zu.

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    Trichophyton rubrum is een schimmel die bekendstaat als de gebruikelijke veroorzaker van zwemmerseczeem en onychomycose en behoort tot de dermatofyten. De schimmel werd voor het eerst beschreven door Malmsten in 1845. In Europa komt de schimmel steeds meer voor. In het laboratorium op een voedingsbodem varieert de groeisnelheid van Trichophyton-kolonies van langzaam tot tamelijk snel. De textuur is wasachtig tot katoenachtig. Kleuren variëren van wit en beigegeel tot bruin. De onderkant van de voedingsbodem is wijnrood gekleurd. Op een voedingsbodem worden er talrijke, peervormige microconidiën gevormd, die aarvormig bij elkaar zitten. Macroconidiën worden zelden gevormd en zijn sigaarvormig met 2 - 7 tussenwanden.

    Identificatie van de schimmel is lastig omdat veel andere schimmels uit het geslacht Trichophyton met de test reagens een vergelijkbare reactie geven.

    De schimmelinfectie krijgt zijn kans op vochtige plaatsen van de huid en begint meestal op het hoofd (tinea capitis) of de voeten (zwemmerseczeem = tinea pedis), maar kan op het gehele lichaam voorkomen.

    De schimmel vormt ringvormige plekken en leeft van de keratine, dat voorkomt in de buitenste dode cellen van de huid en nagels. De infectie veroorzaakt jeuk en een rode, schilferige huid. Als de schimmel zich uitbreidt, worden de ringen steeds groter, terwijl vanuit het aangetaste centrum weer genezing plaatsvindt.


    Trichophyton rubrum  src=

    Micro- en macroconidién

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    Trichophyton rubrum op voedingsbodem

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    Onderkant van voedingsbodem met Sabouraud’s dextrose agar

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    Ringworm

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    Trichophyton rubrum és un fong antropofílic freqüentment causant d'infeccions generalment lleus de la pell i confinades a ungles, pèl i estrat còrneu en persones saludables. És el principal focus del peu d'atleta.

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( Swedish )
    provided by wikipedia SV

    Trichophyton rubrum är en dermatofytisk svamp som är känd för att orsaka svampinfektioner i hud och naglar hos människor. T. rubrum lever på proteinet keratin, och angriper framförallt under finger eller fotnagel (subungualt). Synliga symptom uppstår när svampen sönderdelar keratiner på naglarna eller i huden. Fall av svampinfektion orsakad av T.rubrum har ökat det senaste decenniet och svampangrepp är vanligt förekommande hos människor. Uppskattningsvis anses T. rubrum vara orsaken till 95% av alla fall av nagelsvamp.

    Trichophyton rubrum: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )
    provided by wikipedia PT

    Trichophyton rubrum é uma espécie de fungo dermatófito que coloniza a superfície da pele humana e é a causa mais frequente de pé de atleta, onicomicose e de dermatofitose nas mãos, virilha e corpo. Se alimentam de queratina. Podem causar granulomas em imunodeprimidos.

    É encontrado no mundo inteiro e mais comum entre homens, por questões culturais e ocupacionais.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    There are many strains of Trichophyton rubrum that have been described and mycologists disagree in the accuracy of many of these [1]. Two types that are commonly described are Trichophyton rubrum downy type and Trichophyton rubrum granular type [1]. Under the microscope the downy type types makes slender clavate (club-shaped) microconidia and does not make macroconidia [1]. Granular types in the other hand make a large number of clavate to pyriform (pear-shapee) microconidia and thin-walled, cigar-shaped macroconidia [1]. In order to accurately identify Trichophyton rubrum it is necessary a combination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics since Trichophyton rubrum is a very flexible fungus and many characteristics are similar with other Trichophyton species [2].

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    Trichophyton rubrum was first described in 1910 by Castellani A. in the 19th century [6]. It is the most common cause dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm and tinea [1]. Trichophyton rubrum is an obligate anthropophilic(can infect humans only) fungus that gets its energy from the breakdown of keratin on human surfaces [5][8]. Keratin is a fibrous protein in the epithelium (outermost layer) of animals which provides important structural and protective functions [9]. Nutrient acquisition is done through the breakdown of keratin by proteases (proteins that degrade other proteins) released from the fungus [3]. There is work being done to fully understand its life cycle. It is believed that is sexual reproduction state is similar to closely related species like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton ajelloiandMicrosporum canis (all whose sexual life cycle have been fully understood) but so far there is no concrete data to describe it [10]. Its asexual state has not been properly described either but oddly enough it is believed that it resembles more distant species like A. nidulunsorN. crassa. Dermatophytes, unlike most other fungi, can cause infections in individuals with competent immune systems and individuals seem to be long life carriers post infection. [3]. Trichophyton rubrum is most commonly found in moist areas of the human body where keratin is easily accessible like folds on the skin and under finger and toe nails [3]. Trichophyton rubrum is believed to have evolved in Southeast Asia in the 19th century but it is now found worldwide due to troops returning to their homes or refugees fleeing the country after the Vietnam War [2][7]. Proper identification for dermatophytes is very difficult and can take from 2 to 4 weeks [10]. It requires proper isolation of cultures and microcopy and there is always a risk of misidentification due to pleomorphic growth (change in morphology due to environmental stress) [10].

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    Trichophyton rubrum (most commonly known as ringworm or tinea) is a keratinophilic (feeds on keratin) fungus that can only parasitize humans (obligate antropophile)[5][8]. It is believed to have evolved fairly recently and was first described in Southeast Asia in the 19th century[6][7]. This fungus is now endemic to every continent except for Antarctica and it accounts for more than half of all skin infections caused by fungi [4][5]. This makes this fungus not only economically important but also militarily important as it has been known to immobilize troops in various instances [3].

    Trichophyton rubrum produces club-shaped or pear-shaped microconidia (spore producing structure) and thin-wall cigar shaped macroconidia (larger spore producing structure) which are very similar to many other species in the same family [2]. This means that it is extremely hard to properly identify this organism. This augmented by the fact that even when properly grown and isolated, the fungus can change its shape in accordance with environmental stress, makes it almost impossible to identify by morphology alone [10].

    Even though Trichophyton rubrum accounts for more than half of all fungal skin infections and has been documented to have incapacitated military troops in two different occasions (Vietnam in the 1960s and Panama in the 1980s) very little is known about its life cycle[2][3]. Both sexual and asexual reproductive cycles are assumed to be like closely related organism but it is only from empirical evidence [2].

    Although Trichophyton rubrum is so ubiquitous and a very common cause for skin infections that can be very painful, it is known to have very low lethality [3]. In fact it has been reported to only cause death in immunocompromised patients and infants whose immune system are not fully developed yet, which is probably one of the reasons that there are no effective treatments that can address this problem [3].

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    Even though Dermatophyte infections do not cause death most of the time, they are difficult to treat and can be extremely painful [4]. In one instance in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam in 1966-1969, 50% if the American troops in the region were put out of action by a Dermatophyte infection [3]. In another well documented incident 50% of American troops showed symptoms of infection after being deployed in the hot and humid climate of Panama in the 1980s [3]. 500 million dollars a year are spent worldwide in the treatment of Dermatophyte infections [4]. While this might seem like an enormous amount of money being spent in treatment for fungi that are most of the time non-lethal, it is important to take into account three factors. First is that due to the fact that the main source of nutrients of these fungi is keratin, almost any surface of the body can be colonized by Dermatophytes (including feet, torso, scalp and nails), second is that there are not any effective treatments to treat these infections, and third is that in many species (like Trichophyton rubrum) there is relapse after treatment [3]. Out of all the Dermatophyte infections the species Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent [5] which is probably due to the fact that Trichophyton rubrum is endemic to all continents except for Antarctica [4]. At the Canadian National Center 58% of Dermatophylic isolates were Trichophyton rubrum [5]. Trichophyton rubrum releases proteases that not only degrade proteins in epithelial surfaces but also help with the adhesion and sequential invasion of the host [3]. Once the host becomes infected the fungus causes itchy and flaky skin that is sometimes accompanied by redness and swelling [5]. Infections are characterized by what part of the body they are found. Currently there are six categories: Tinea pedis (feet), tinea cruris (proximal medial thights, preum and buttocks), tinea unguium (nails), tinea corporis (body), tinea barbae (beard) and tinea capitis (scalp) [5] (tinea corporis and tinea cruris are commonly known as ringworm). Different fungi can cause one or more of these six conditions and Trichophyton rubrum is known to cause all of them [5]. The most common form of transmission is through the feet as skin scales left in carpets or mats are excellent vectors for transmission and can survive for month or even year on these substrates [5]. The reason that skin scales are so infectious is that they contain hyphal elements of the fungi which are able to replicate and parasitize a new host [5].

    Трихофитон красный: Brief Summary ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

    Trichophyton rubrum (трихофитон красный) — вид антропофильных грибков-дерматофитов рода Trichophyton из отдела Аскомицетов. Сапротроф, размножается только делением, колонизирует верхние омертвевшие (роговые) слои, питается кератинами разрушая их, и является наиболее частой причиной грибковых инфекций ногтей (онихомикоз), паховой эпидермофитии и стригущего лишая по всему миру, также так называемой стопы спортсмена (лат. tinea pedis, англ. Athlete's foot).

    红色毛癣菌: Brief Summary ( Chinese )
    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

    红色毛癣菌(學名:Trichophyton rubrum)是毛癣菌属下的一個種,是人源的皮癣菌,引起常見的皮肤浅部真菌病,如手癣、足癣、頭癣等。红色毛癣菌是引致東南亞地區及澳洲北部的原住民體癬的真菌,且隨著越戰的發展,由返回國家的軍人及難民被帶至世界各地。現時世界各地大部份皮癣的病源多是由红色毛癣菌引致的。

Comprehensive Description