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Anguidae

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Anguidae refers to a large and diverse family of lizards native to the Northern Hemisphere. Common characteristics of this group include a reduced supratemporal arch, striations on the medial faces of tooth crowns, osteoderms, and a lateral fold in the skin of most taxa.[1] The group includes the slowworms, glass lizards, and alligator lizards, among others. The family is divided into three subfamilies (Anguinae, Diploglossinae, and Gerrhonotinae), and contains about 100 species in 10 genera.

Morphology and reproduction

Anguids have hard osteoderms beneath their scales giving them an armored appearance. Many of the species have reduced or absent limbs, giving them a snake-like appearance, while others are fully limbed.[2] Body type varies among species, with sizes ranging from 10 cm to 1.5 m. The group includes oviparous and viviparous species, both of which can be observed in a single genus at times.[2][1]

Feeding and habitat

These lizards are known carnivorous or insectivorous foragers, feeding primarily on insects, although larger species have been known to feed on small reptiles and amphibians. They inhabit a wide range of different habitats across the globe, from arid to tropical environments. Most known species are terrestrial or semifossorial, with the exception of one arboreal genus: Abronia.[1]

Evolution

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Helodermoides tuberculatus fossil

Anguids have a relatively good fossil record and are relatively common as fossils in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America. The oldest known anguid, with the most complete fossil record of any lizard, is Odaxosaurus, a member of the extinct anguid subfamily Glyptosaurinae, from the late Campanian of Canada, about 75 million years ago. Odaxosaurus and other Late Cretaceous anguids already exhibit many features found in living anguids, including chisel-like teeth and armor plates in the skin, suggesting a long evolutionary history for the group. Anguids were particularly diverse during the Paleocene and Eocene in North America; some species, such as those belonging to Glyptosaurinae, [1] grew to large size and evolved a highly specialized crushing dentition. The long fossil record for the Anguidae in North America suggests that the group probably evolved in North America during the Cretaceous before dispersing to Europe in the Paleogene.

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This figure shows a simplified phylogeny of the Anguid subfamilies based on maximum-likelihood analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data.[3]

Classification

Family ANGUIDAE

  • Subfamily Anguinae
    • Genus Anguis - slowworms (two species)
    • Genus Dopasia - Asian glass lizards (seven species)
    • Genus Hyalosaurus - North African glass lizard (one species)
    • Genus Ophisaurus - American glass lizards (five species)
    • Genus Pseudopus - scheltopusik (one extant species)
  • Subfamily Diploglossinae
  • Subfamily Gerrhonotinae - alligator lizards
    • Genus Gerrhonotus - alligator lizards (seven species)
    • Genus Abronia - arboreal alligator lizards (37 species)
    • Genus Elgaria - western alligator lizards (seven species)
  • SubfamilyGlyptosaurinae

Genetic evidence indicates that Diploglossinae lies outside the clade containing Anguinae, Gerrhonotinae, and the family Anniellidae, Therefore it has been placed in own separate family Diploglossidae.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Anguidae". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
  2. ^ a b Bauer, Aaron M. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 152–155. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
  3. ^ Wiens, J. J.; Slingluff, J. L. (2001-11-11). "How lizards turn into snakes: a phylogenetic analysis of body-form evolution in anguid lizards". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 55 (11): 2303–2318. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001.tb00744.x. ISSN 0014-3820. PMID 11794789. S2CID 2235211.
  4. ^ Burbrink, Frank T; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Pyron, R Alexander; Cundall, David; Donnellan, Steve; Irish, Frances; Keogh, J Scott; Kraus, Fred; Murphy, Robert W; Noonan, Brice; Raxworthy, Christopher J (2020-05-01). Thomson, Robert (ed.). "Interrogating Genomic-Scale Data for Squamata (Lizards, Snakes, and Amphisbaenians) Shows no Support for Key Traditional Morphological Relationships". Systematic Biology. 69 (3): 502–520. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syz062. ISSN 1063-5157. PMID 31550008.

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Anguidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Anguidae refers to a large and diverse family of lizards native to the Northern Hemisphere. Common characteristics of this group include a reduced supratemporal arch, striations on the medial faces of tooth crowns, osteoderms, and a lateral fold in the skin of most taxa. The group includes the slowworms, glass lizards, and alligator lizards, among others. The family is divided into three subfamilies (Anguinae, Diploglossinae, and Gerrhonotinae), and contains about 100 species in 10 genera.

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Anguidae

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Anguidae sont une famille de sauriens[1]. Elle a été créée par John Edward Gray en 1825.

Étymologie

Le terme Anguidae dérive du nom du genre Anguis avec une terminaison -dae utilisée pour les familles[2].

Description

La plupart de ces lézards sont dépourvus de pattes ou bien ont des pattes réduites ou semi-atrophiées. Ils peuvent être de taille variée, allant d'environ 5 cm jusqu'à un peu plus d'un mètre (queue comprise). Ils sont diurnes, principalement terrestres bien que quelques espèces soient arboricoles et aient même une queue préhensile (genre Abronia). Ils sont carnivores et consomment selon les genres divers petits batraciens, insectes et autres petits animaux.

Ce sont des vivipares ou des ovovivipares selon les espèces.

Répartition

Les espèces de cette famille se rencontrent en Amérique, en Asie, en Europe et en Afrique du Nord[1].

Liste des genres

Selon Reptarium Reptile Database (28 avril 2014)[3] :

Les Diploglossinae (Celestus, Diploglossus et Ophiodes) ont été élevés au rang de famille[4]. Ces 3 genres comportent 50 espèces présentes en Amérique centrale, aux Antilles et dans le centre de l'Amérique du Sud.

Espèces européennes

En Europe, seulement 2 genres et 5 espèces sont présents[5].

Publication originale

  • Gray, 1825 : A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species. Annals of Philosophy, London, sér. 2, vol. 10, p. 193–217 (texte intégral).

Notes et références

  1. a et b Reptarium Reptile Database, consulté lors d'une mise à jour du lien externe
  2. Jean Lescure et Bernard Le Garff, L'étymologie des noms d'amphibiens et de reptiles d'Europe, Paris, Belin, coll. « Éveil nature », 2006, 207 p. (ISBN 978-2-7011-4142-8, notice BnF no )
  3. Reptarium Reptile Database, consulté le 28 avril 2014
  4. Vidal & Hedges, 2009 : The molecular evolutionary tree of lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians. Comptes Rendus Biologies, vol. 332, p. 129–139.
  5. Jean-Pierre Vacher, Michel geniez, Les Reptiles de France, Belgique, Luxembourg et Suisse, Editeur : Biotope / Publications scientifiques du MNHN, Collection Parthénope, 2010 (ISBN 9782914817493)
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Anguidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Anguidae sont une famille de sauriens. Elle a été créée par John Edward Gray en 1825.

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무족도마뱀과

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

무족도마뱀과(Anguidae)는 뱀목에 속하는 무족도마뱀류 과이다.[1] 북반구에서 발견되는 도마뱀이다. 3개 아과, 8속에 94종을 포함하고 있다.

하위 분류

  • Anguinae
    • Anguis - 2종
    • Dopasia - 6종
    • Hyalosaurus - 단일종 북아프리카유리도마뱀
    • Ophisaurus - 아메리카유리도마뱀 5종
    • Pseudopus - 단일종
  • Diploglossinae
    • Celestus - 25종
    • Diploglossus - 19종
    • Ophiodes - 4종
  • Gerrhonotinae
    • Gerrhonotus - 4종
    • Abronia - 27종

계통 분류

다음은 2013년 피론(Pyron, R.A.) 등의 연구에 기초한 계통 분류이다.[1]

무족도마뱀류    

악어도마뱀과

unnamed

독도마뱀과

unnamed

미국무족도마뱀과

   

무족도마뱀과

       
unnamed

중국악어도마뱀과

unnamed

바다왕도마뱀과

   

왕도마뱀과

       

각주

  1. Pyron, R.A.; Frank T Burbrink, John J Wiens 2013. “A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes.”. 《BMC Evol Biol 13: 93》. CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
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