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Brief Summary

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The spider family Theridiosomatidae (ray orbweavers) includes 101 described species (Platnick 2014). The family has a worldwide, but mainly tropical, distribution. Two species, Theridiosoma gemmosum and T. savannum, are known from North America north of Mexico, where they are distinctive in being very small spiders with extremely stout first femora, abundant macrosetae ("spines"), chelicerae with robust teeth, and very large male genitalia. Both North American species are known only from eastern North America. Theridiosoma gemmosum is found across most of the eastern United States and southern Ontario (Canada) and is also widely distributed in northern Europe, where it may be introduced. Theridiosoma savannum has a more southern distribution and is only common along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Although the two species are broadly sympatric (i.e., their geographic ranges overlap), they prefer different microhabitats. Theridiosoma gemmosum prefers extremely humid microhabitats that are almost always in closed canopy forests whereas Theridiosoma savannum spins horizontal orb webs on the surface of coarse (i.e., broadleaf) leaf litter in moist, closed-canopy southeastern forests, e.g. of live oaks and gum trees. In the field, these spiders spin modified but recognizable orbwebs with radii that join before reaching the hub and a "tension" line extending from the hub to the substrate with which the spider distorts the web into a cone when ready to capture prey. Coddington (2005) provides details on web placement, web construction, and prey capture for both North American species. Both North American species are unusual among orbweavers in being primarily diurnal predators (Coddington 2005). Coddington notes that both of these species make papery brown egg sacs suspended from a silk line, forked at the top, and that these egg sacs are often the most conspicuous indication that theridiosomatids are present. Coddington (2005) reviews the taxonomic history of this family.

(Coddington 2005)

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Ray spider

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The ray spiders (Theridiosomatidae) is a family of spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1881.[2] They are most recognizable for their construction of cone-shaped webs.[3]

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[1]

  • Andasta Simon, 1895 – Seychelles, Malaysia, Sri Lanka
  • Baalzebub Coddington, 1986 – Central America, Brazil, Australia, China
  • Chthonopes Wunderlich, 2011 – Laos
  • Chthonos Coddington, 1986 – Ecuador, Brazil, Peru
  • Coddingtonia Miller, Griswold & Yin, 2009 – Malaysia, Laos
  • Cuacuba Prete, Cizauskas & Brescovit, 2018
  • Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 – Mexico, Costa Rica
  • Epilineutes Coddington, 1986 – Mexico, Brazil
  • Karstia Chen, 2010 – China
  • Menglunia Zhao & Li, 2012 – China
  • Naatlo Coddington, 1986 – Central America, South America, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Ogulnius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 – South America, Caribbean, Panama, Asia
  • Parogulnius Archer, 1953 – United States
  • Plato Coddington, 1986 – South America, Trinidad
  • Sinoalaria Zhao & Li, 2014 – China
  • Tagalogonia Labarque & Griswold, 2014 – Philippines
  • Theridiosoma O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 – South America, Africa, Oceania, North America, Asia, Central America, Jamaica
  • Wendilgarda Keyserling, 1886 – Asia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Central America, Brazil, Mexico, Caribbean
  • Zoma Saaristo, 1996 – China, Seychelles

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Family: Theridiosomatidae Simon, 1881". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
  2. ^ Simon, E. (1881). Les arachnides de France. Tome cinquième, première partie.
  3. ^ Kaston, B.J. (1972). How to Know the Spiders. Pictured key nature series (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm C. Brown Company Publishers. OCLC 668250654.

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Ray spider: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The ray spiders (Theridiosomatidae) is a family of spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1881. They are most recognizable for their construction of cone-shaped webs.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN