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Description of Cladosporium
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Colonies dark greenish to black, black in reverse, and relatively slow-growing. The dark spores are 1- or 2-celled and occur in long, branching chains that arise from a dark conidiophore. The youngest spore is at the top of the chain. The slightest movement will disrupt the chains, making microscope mounts of the whole structure nearly impossible. The best way to recognize the genus is by the prominent scars on the spores where the adjacent ones were attached. Very common on decaying plants; occurs widely in domestic environments and implicated in allergic problems and the like. Over 30 species. Generally non-pathogenic but Cladosporium carrionii is an agent of chromoblastomycosis in subtropical and tropical regions.
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Cladosporium
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Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds. Species produce olive-green to brown or black colonies, and have dark-pigmented conidia that are formed in simple or branching chains. Many species of Cladosporium are commonly found on living and dead plant material. Some species are plant pathogens, others parasitize other fungi. Cladosporium spores are wind-dispersed and they are often extremely abundant in outdoor air. Indoors Cladosporium species may grow on surfaces when moisture is present. Cladosporium fulvum, cause of tomato leaf mould, has been an important genetic model, in that the genetics of host resistance are understood.[2] In the 1960s, it was estimated that the genus Cladosporium contained around 500 plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic species,[3] but this number has since been increased to over 772 species.[4] The genus Cladosporium is very closely related to black yeasts in the order Dothideales.[3] Cladosporium species are often highly osmotolerant, growing easily on media containing 10% glucose or 12–17% NaCl.[3] They are rarely grown on media containing 24% NaCl or 50% glucose and never isolated from medium with 32% NaCl or greater.[3] Most species have very fragile spore chains, making it extremely difficult to prepare a mount for microscopic observation in which the conidial chains are preserved intact.[5]

Health effects

Cladosporium species are rarely pathogenic to humans, but have been reported to cause infections of the skin and toenails as well as sinuses and lungs. The airborne spores of Cladosporium species are significant allergens, and in large amounts they can severely affect asthmatics and people with respiratory diseases. Cladosporium species produce no major mycotoxins of concern, but do produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with odours.

Species

References

  1. ^ Schoch CL, Shoemaker RA, Seifert KA, Hambleton S, Spatafora JW, Crous PW (2006). "A multigene phylogeny of the Dothideomycetes using four nuclear loci" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (6): 1041–52. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1041. PMID 17486979..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Rivas, S.; Thomas, C.M. (2005). "Molecular interactions between tomato and the leaf mold pathogen: Cladosporium fulvum". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 43: 395–436. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.43.040204.140224.
  3. ^ a b c d Deshmukh, S.K.; Rai, M.K. (2005). Biodiversity of fungi : their role in human life. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers. p. 460. ISBN 1578083680.
  4. ^ Dugan, Frank M.; Schubert, Konstanze; Braun, Uwe (2004). "Check-list of Cladosporium names" (PDF). Schlechtendalia. 11: 1–119.
  5. ^ Barron, George L. (1968). The genera of Hyphomycetes from soil. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780882750040.

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Cladosporium: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds. Species produce olive-green to brown or black colonies, and have dark-pigmented conidia that are formed in simple or branching chains. Many species of Cladosporium are commonly found on living and dead plant material. Some species are plant pathogens, others parasitize other fungi. Cladosporium spores are wind-dispersed and they are often extremely abundant in outdoor air. Indoors Cladosporium species may grow on surfaces when moisture is present. Cladosporium fulvum, cause of tomato leaf mould, has been an important genetic model, in that the genetics of host resistance are understood. In the 1960s, it was estimated that the genus Cladosporium contained around 500 plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic species, but this number has since been increased to over 772 species. The genus Cladosporium is very closely related to black yeasts in the order Dothideales. Cladosporium species are often highly osmotolerant, growing easily on media containing 10% glucose or 12–17% NaCl. They are rarely grown on media containing 24% NaCl or 50% glucose and never isolated from medium with 32% NaCl or greater. Most species have very fragile spore chains, making it extremely difficult to prepare a mount for microscopic observation in which the conidial chains are preserved intact.

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