dcsimg

Behavioral diversity

provided by EOL authors

It is extremely difficult to generalize about any of the behaviors or nesting habits of passerines, because as a group they are so diverse. Perching birds exhibit a bewildering array of plumages and colors derived from diverse keratin structures as well as ingested pigments, such as carotenoids (Gray, 1996). Many passerines, such as some Old World Flycatchers (Muscicapidae) and African Widowbirds (Viduinae) have extremely long tail feathers or highly modified plumes (Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae) used in courtship displays. Several groups such as the Wattlebirds of New Zealand (Callaeidae) and Honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) have fleshy, bright blue, red or yellow wattles on the face and neck. Perching birds build their nests generally out of sticks or grass on the ground, in trees, and in the case of Dippers (Cinclidae) in the banks of fast-flowing rivers. Many passerines migrate from their nesting grounds in the Nearctic and Palearctic to more equatorial regions, or from southern temperate regions north to the tropics. Parental care by both sexes is common in passerines, although in some highly dimorphic and predominantly lekking groups, such as manakins (Prum, 1994) and birds of paradise (Diamond, 1986), females alone provide for young and build the nest. Cooperative breeding, in which young birds delay breeding and assist other individuals (often parents) in raising young and defending the territory, is common in several passerine groups, such as Australian fairy wrens (Maluridae) and New World Jays (Corvidae; Brown, 1987; Edwards and Naeem, 1993). Some of the most elaborate singers in the bird world are passerines (Kroodsma and Miller, 1996). Some passerine birds are poisonous to the touch and are avoided as prey by indigenous peoples (Dumbacher et al., 1992).

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Scott V. Edwards and John Harshman
bibliographic citation
Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
author
Cyndy Parr (csparr)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Introduction

provided by EOL authors

The Passeriformes is the largest and most diverse commonly recognized clade of birds. The Passeriformes (or ‘passerine’ birds) are synonymous with what are commonly known as "perching birds"; this group also contains within it a major radiation commonly known as songbirds (oscine Passerines or Passeri). Of the 10,000 or so extant species of birds, over half (~5,300) are perching birds.

Perching birds have a worldwide distribution, with representatives on all continents except Antarctica, and reaching their greatest diversity in the tropics. Body sizes of passerines vary from about 1.4 kg in northern populations of Ravens (Corvus corax) to just a few grams. Perching birds include some of the most colorful and mysterious of all birds, such as birds of paradise from New Guinea and the bright orange Cock of the Rock from tropical South America. Because of their high diversity, generally small body size and relative ease of observation, collection and field study, perching birds have historically attracted the attention of a wide range of descriptive and experimental biologists, including systematists, behavioral ecologists, and evolutionary biologists.

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Scott V. Edwards and John Harshman
bibliographic citation
Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
author
Cyndy Parr (csparr)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Monophyly and Sister Group

provided by EOL authors

Historically, it is generally agreed that the Passeriformes constitute a monophyletic group. Raikow (1982) established this monophyly in an explicitly phylogeneticcontext. He noted that Passeriformes possess a suite of distinguishing characteristics, including a unique sperm morphology, a distinctive morphology of the bony palate, a simple yet functionally diverse foot with three toes forward and one (the hallux) oriented backwards, and a distinctive fore- (wing) and hindlimb musculature. There are few if any species which pose problems for avian systematists as to whether they are or are not passerines. Most of the controversy lies in relationships within the clade.

The sister group of the Passeriformes is not so much hotly contested as it is poorly resolved by existing data sets. Traditionally, Passeriformes have been considered closely related to a large group known as the “higher non-Passerines”. These include a number of clades such as cuckoos (Cuculiformes), hornbills, kingfishers and related lineages (Coraciiformes), and woodpeckers and relatives (Piciformes). Many of these groups possess a zygodactyl foot, a condition in which two toes point forward and two point backward. The sister relationship of Passeriformes to woodpeckers, the hornbill group and allies is reflected in Joel Cracraft’s phylogenetic hypothesis for major groups of birds based on cladistic interpretation of morphological and molecular characters (Cracraft, 1988). However, in the other major classification bearing on the relationships of perching birds, that based on DNA-DNA hybridization, Passeriformes appear as the sister group to a large, diverse group containing pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), cranes and rails (Gruiformes) and storks (Ciconiiformes)! These latter three groups share few obvious morphological characteristics with Passeriformes. However, the DNA hybridization tree links Passeriformes with these groups at a very deep level in the tree, rendering this result tenuous. A recent study of nuclear DNA sequences by Hackett et al. (2008) finds Psittaciformes (parrots) to be the sister group of passerines, with Falconidae (falcons) also close. Clearly, more work on the sister-group relationship of Passeriformes is needed, since this relationship will be the basis of any study seeking to identify whether or not Passeriformes are a particularly diverse group (e.g., Nee et al. 1992).

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Scott V. Edwards and John Harshman
bibliographic citation
Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
author
Cyndy Parr (csparr)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Species diversity, origin and biogeography

provided by EOL authors

Species diversity:The tradition of recognizing perching birds (Passeriformes) as the most diverse and rapidly radiating clade has been questioned because there are few obvious “key innovations” that should cause systematists to recognize Passeriformes over any other arbitrarily larger or smaller monophyletic group within birds (Raikow, 1986). One point that has been missed in debates on this issue is that the branch leading to the songbirds (oscines), a group comprising 80% of extant perching birds, is the longest internal branch on the DNA hybridization tree produced by Sibley and Ahlquist (1990). This branch has also been one of the few to be well resolved in applications of mtDNA sequences to higher level questions in birds, presumably because it is long. Given the large number of clades that will require names under phylogenetic taxonomy, perhaps the length of branches leading to particular clades should be one criterion whereby systematists decide which of the many clades to name.

Origin and biogeography of passerines:The temporal and geographic origin of passerine birds is obscure. Traditionally the group was thought to have originated in the Tertiary, at about the same time as extant orders of mammals. Some recent workers favor a later, Eocene origin (Feduccia, 1995; Wilson, 1989), but the DNA -DNA hybridization data again favors an earlier origin (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990). Recently some of the oldest oscine fossils have been uncovered in Queensland, Australia (Boles, 1995); this and other paleobiogeographical data suggest that passerines may have in fact originated in the Southern hemisphere (Olson, 1989).

license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Scott V. Edwards and John Harshman
bibliographic citation
Edwards, Scott V. and John Harshman. 2013. Passeriformes. Perching Birds, Passerine Birds. Version 06 February 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Passeriformes/15868/2013.02.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
author
Cyndy Parr (csparr)
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Passerine

provided by wikipedia EN
Any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching. With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species,[1][2] Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates.[3]

The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from Passer domesticus, the scientific name of the eponymous species (the house sparrow) and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Description

 src=
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni (suboscines), Passeri (oscines), and the basal Acanthisitti[4]. Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a wide range of songs and other vocalizations (though some of them, such as the crows, do not sound musical to human beings); some such as the lyrebird are accomplished imitators. The acanthisittids or New Zealand wrens are tiny birds restricted to New Zealand, at least in modern times; they were long placed in Passeri; their taxonomic position is uncertain, although they seem to be a distinct and very ancient group.

 src=
Pterylosis or the feather tracts in a typical passerine

Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders. The heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the thick-billed raven and the larger races of common raven, each exceeding 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and 70 cm (28 in). The superb lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to very long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall. The smallest passerine is the short-tailed pygmy tyrant, at 6.5 cm (2.6 in) and 4.2 g (0.15 oz).

Anatomy

The foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backward, called anisodactyl arrangement. This arrangement enables the passerine birds to perch upon vertical surfaces, such as trees and cliffs. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas, the second and third toes are united at their basal third. The hind toe joins the leg at the same level as the front toes. The passeriformes have this toe arrangement in common with hunting birds like eagles and falcons.

The leg arrangement of passerine birds contains a special adaptation for perching. A tendon in the rear of the leg running from the underside of the toes to the muscle behind the tibiotarsus will automatically be pulled and tighten when the leg bends, causing the foot to curl and become stiff when the bird lands on a branch. This enables passerines to sleep while perching without falling off.[5][6]

Most passerine birds develop 12 tail feathers, although the superb lyrebird has 16.[7] Certain species of passerines have stiff tail feathers, which help the birds balance themselves when perching upon vertical surfaces. Some passerines, specifically in the family Ploceidae, are well known for their elaborate sexual ornaments, including extremely long tails. A well-known example is the long-tailed widowbird.

Eggs and nests

The chicks of passerines are altricial: blind, featherless, and helpless when hatched from their eggs. Hence, the chicks require extensive parental care. Most passerines lay coloured eggs, in contrast with nonpasserines, most of whose eggs are white except in some ground-nesting groups such as Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, and in some parasitic cuckoos, which match the passerine host's egg. Vinous-throated parrotbill has two egg colours, white and blue. This can prevent the brood parasitic Common cuckoo.

Clutches vary considerably in size: some larger passerines of Australia such as lyrebirds and scrub-robins lay only a single egg, most smaller passerines in warmer climates lay between two and five, while in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, hole-nesting species like tits can lay up to a dozen and other species around five or six. The family Viduidae do not build their own nests, instead, they lay eggs in other birds' nests.

Origin and evolution

The evolutionary history of the passerine families and the relationships among them remained rather mysterious until the late 20th century. In many cases, passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities that, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the wrens of the Americas and Eurasia; those of Australia; and those of New Zealand look superficially similar and behave in similar ways, and yet belong to three far-flung branches of the passerine family tree; they are as unrelated as it is possible to be while remaining Passeriformes.[8]

Much research remains to be done, but advances in molecular biology and improved paleobiogeographical data gradually are revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution that reconciles molecular affinities, the constraints of morphology and the specifics of the fossil record.[9][10] The first passerines are now thought to have evolved in the Southern Hemisphere in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, around 50 million years ago.[11][10]

The initial split was between the New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) and all other passerines, and the second split involved the Tyranni (suboscines) and the Passeri (oscines or songbirds). The latter experienced a great radiation of forms out of the Australian continent. A major branch of the Passeri, parvorder Passerida, expanded deep into Eurasia and Africa, where a further explosive radiation of new lineages occurred.[10] This eventually led to three major Passerida lineages comprising about 4,000 species, which in addition to the Corvida and numerous minor lineages make up songbird diversity today. Extensive biogeographical mixing happens, with northern forms returning to the south, southern forms moving north, and so on.

Fossil record

Earliest passerines

 src=
Male superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae): This very primitive songbird shows strong sexual dimorphism, with a peculiarly apomorphic display of plumage in males.

Perching bird osteology, especially of the limb bones, is rather diagnostic.[12] However, the early fossil record is poor because the first Passeriformes were apparently on the small side of the present size range, and their delicate bones did not preserve well. Queensland Museum specimens F20688 (carpometacarpus) and F24685 (tibiotarsus) from Murgon, Queensland, are fossil bone fragments initially assigned to Passeriformes.[13] However, the material is too fragmentary and their affinities have been questioned.[14] Several more recent fossils from the Oligocene of Europe that are more complete definitely represent early passeriforms, although their exact position in the evolutionary tree is not known.

From the Bathans Formation at the Manuherikia River in Otago, New Zealand, MNZ S42815 (a distal right tarsometatarsus of a tui-sized bird) and several bones of at least one species of saddleback-sized bird have recently been described. These date from the Early to Middle Miocene (Awamoan to Lillburnian, 19–16 mya).[15]

Modern knowledge about the living passerines' interrelationships (see the list of families below) suggests that the last common ancestor of all living Passeriformes was a small forest bird, probably with a stubby tail[16] and an overall drab coloration, but possibly with marked sexual dimorphism. The latter trait seems to have been lost and re-evolved multiple times in songbird evolution alone, judging from its distribution among the extant lineages. Sexual dichromatism is very rare among the basal lineages of Passerida, and probably their plesiomorphic condition. But among the youngest passerid clade, the Passeroidea, extremely colorful males and drab females are common, if not the rule. On the other hand, among the basalmost Passeri a considerable number of strongly dimorphic lineages exist, too, such as the very ancient Menuridae, as well as many Meliphagoidea and Corvoidea. Sexual dimorphism is also not uncommon in the Acanthisittidae and prominent in some suboscines such as the Pipridae and Cotingidae.

Early European passerines

 src=
Wieslochia fossil

In Europe, perching birds are not too uncommon in the fossil record from the Oligocene onward, but most are too fragmentary for a more definite placement:

  • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
  • Jamna (Early Oligocene of Jamna Dolna, Poland)
  • Resoviaornis (Early Oligocene of Wola Rafałowska, Poland)
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene of Luberon, France) – suboscine or basal[17]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Oligocene of France) – several suboscine and oscine taxa[18]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Middle Miocene of France and Germany) – basal?[19]
  • Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszőlős, Hungary) – at least 2 taxa, possibly 3; at least one probably Oscines[20]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Felsőtárkány, Hungary) – oscine?[21]
  • Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Polgárdi, Hungary) – Sylvioidea (Sylviidae? Cettiidae?)[22]

Wieslochia was possibly not a member of any extant suborder. That not only the Passeri expanded much beyond their region of origin is proven by an undetermined broadbill (Eurylaimidae) from the Early Miocene (roughly 20 mya) of Wintershof, Germany, and the indeterminant Late Oligocene suboscine from France listed above. Even very basal Passeriformes might have been common in Europe until the Middle Miocene, some 12 mya.[23] Extant Passeri super-families were quite distinct by that time and are known since about 12–13 mya when modern genera were present in the corvoidean and basal songbirds. The modern diversity of Passerida genera is known mostly from the Late Miocene onwards and into the Pliocene (about 10–2 mya). Pleistocene and early Holocene lagerstätten (<1.8 mya) yield numerous extant species, and many yield almost nothing but extant species or their chronospecies and paleosubspecies.

American fossils

In the Americas, the fossil record is more scant before the Pleistocene, from which several still-existing suboscine families are documented. Apart from the indeterminable MACN-SC-1411 (Pinturas Early/Middle Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina),[24] an extinct lineage of perching birds has been described from the Late Miocene of California, United States: the Palaeoscinidae with the single genus Paleoscinis. "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene of Florida) probably belongs to an extant family, most likely passeroidean.

Systematics and taxonomy

Corvida and Passerida were classified as parvorders in the suborder Passeri; in accord with the usual taxonomic practice, they would probably be ranked as infraorders. As originally envisioned in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, they contained, respectively, the large superfamilies Corvoidea and Meliphagoidea, as well as minor lineages, and the superfamilies Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, and Passeroidea.

The arrangement has been found to be oversimplified by more recent research. Since the mid-2000s, literally, dozens of studies are being published that try rather successfully to resolve the phylogeny of the passeriform radiation. For example, the Corvida in the traditional sense was a rather arbitrary assemblage of early and/or minor lineages of passeriform birds of Old World origin, generally from the region of Australia, New Zealand, and Wallacea. The Passeri, though, can be made monophyletic by moving some families about, but the "clean" three-superfamily-arrangement has turned out to be far more complex and it is uncertain whether future authors will stick to it.

Major "wastebin" families such as the Old World warblers and Old World babblers have turned out to be paraphyletic and are being rearranged. Several taxa turned out to represent highly distinct species-poor lineages, so new families had to be established, some of them – like the stitchbird of New Zealand and the Eurasian bearded reedlingmonotypic with only one living species.[25] In the Passeri alone, a number of minor lineages will eventually be recognized as distinct superfamilies. For example, the kinglets constitute a single genus with less than 10 species today but seem to have been among the first perching bird lineages to diverge as the group spread across Eurasia. No particularly close relatives of them have been found among comprehensive studies of the living Passeri, though they might be fairly close to some little-studied tropical Asian groups. Treatment of the nuthatches, wrens, and their closest relatives as a distinct super-family Certhioidea is increasingly considered justified; the same might eventually apply to the tits and their closest relatives.

This process is still continuing. Therefore, the arrangement as presented here is subject to change. However, it should take precedence over unreferenced conflicting treatments in family, genus, and species articles here.

Taxonomic list of Passeriformes families

 src=
New Zealand rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris), one of the two surviving species of suborder Acanthisitti

This list is in taxonomic order, placing related species/groups next to each other. The Passerida subdivisions are updated as needed from the default sequence of the Handbook of the Birds of the World,[26] based on the most modern and comprehensive studies.[27]

Arrangement of families

The families are sorted into a somewhat novel sequence unlike that in older works, where e.g. Corvidae are placed last. This is because so many reallocations have taken place since about 2005 that a definite taxonomy has not been established yet, although the phylogeny is by and large resolved. The present sequence is an attempt to preserve as much of the traditional sequence while giving priority to adequately addressing the phylogenetic relationships between the families. Based on John Boyd's Taxonomy in Flux Checklist 3.5.[28]

Suborder Acanthisitti

 src=
Javan banded pitta (Hydrornis guajanus), an Old World suboscine.
 src=
Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus) a New World suboscine

Suborder Tyranni (Suboscines)

Suborder Passeri (songbirds or oscines)

 src=
Male regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus, Ptilonorhynchidae)
 src=
Male stitchbird or hihi (Notiomystis cincta) showing convergence with honeyeaters
 src=
Tiny goldcrest (Regulus regulus) belongs to a minor but highly distinct lineage of Passeri
 src=
Reed warblers, such as this Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum), are now in the Acrocephalidae
 src=
blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and its relatives stand well apart from rest of the Sylvioidea sensu lato
 src=
Brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), nuthatches can climb downwards head-first
 src=
Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), like many Muscicapoidea a stout and cryptic bird with complex vocalizations.
 src=
Like these male (right) and female Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae), many Passeroidea are very colorful
  • Infraorder Passerides
    • Melanocharitida
    • Cnemophilida
    • Petroicida
    • Eupetida – rockfowl and allies, eat large arthropods and sometimes small vertebrates. Relictual distribution in three areas of the Old World tropics, mid-sized to large songbirds with strong legs, adapted to move long distances on foot across rough ground, males and females look alike
    • Paroidea – titmice and allies, might be included in Sylvioidea, feed mainly on arthropods, seeds, and berries, widely distributed but absent from South America and the Australian region[verification needed], smallish round-bodied acrobatic birds, often brightly colored with large patches of yellow, blue, green, black and white, males and females usually look quite alike
    • Sylvioidea: – "Old World warblers/babblers" and allies, generally insectivores, sometimes supplemented with berries, distribution centered on the Indo-Pacific region, few occur in the Australian region and fewer still in the Americas, usually slender and drab birds, few have pronounced sexual dimorphism
    • Reguloidea
      • Regulidae (kinglets), tiny forest-dwelling insectivores, found only in the Northern Hemisphere, greenish above, whitish below and striking (at close range) head pattern of black and yellow to red stripes, sexual dimorphism slight
    • Bombycilloidea – waxwings and allies, included in the Muscicapoidea if Sittoidea/Certhioidea are also included there, omnivores but strongly prefer juicy fruit and nectar, Laurasian, essentially[verification needed] limited to the Northern Hemisphere, mid-sized and typically fairly inconspicuous except for their habit of roaming around in noisy flocks, plumage typically grey-hued and with silk-like texture, but many have a conspicuous black face and/or yellow ornaments, several melanic lineages, sexual dimorphism slight if any. Hylocitrea might be included here as monotypic family.
    • Certhioidea – wrens, treecreepers and allies. Sometimes included in Muscicapoidea. Occur in the Americas and Eurasia, though mostly north of the Alpide belt. Distribution and the basal fossil Certhiops indicates the Certhioidea probably originated around the end of the Paleogene somewhere around the North Atlantic. Small, often tiny, tend to be conspicuously plump but nimble; many accomplished climbers. Plumage extremely cryptic or somewhat colorful, in the latter case typically blue-grey at least on the upperside. Sexes look identical or almost so, but may differ strongly in vocalizations.
      • Tichodromadidae: wallcreeper: Traditionally placed as a subfamily of the nuthatches and more rarely of the treecreepers, no study has been able to verify either placement this far. Thus it is better considered a monotypic family, at least for the time being.
      • Sittidae: nuthatches
      • Certhiidae: treecreepers
      • Salpornithidae: spotted creepers. Tentatively placed here; often considered a subfamily of the Certhidae.
      • Troglodytidae: wrens
      • Polioptilidae: gnatcatchers
    • Muscicapoidea – "Old World flycatchers", starlings and allies. Mostly insectivores, near-global distribution centered on Old World tropics. One family endemic to Americas. Nearly absent (except introductions) from the Australian region. Usually rather robust for their size, some species (especially of Cinclidae, Buphagidae and Mimidae) are quite dark and dull while others are commonly colorful or/and iridescent. Sexual dimorphism often absent, sometimes pronounced.
      • Cinclidae: dippers, the most aquatic members of the whole clade.
      • Turdidae: thrushes and allies. Monophyly needs confirmation.
      • Muscicapidae: Old World flycatchers and chats. Monophyly needs confirmation.
      • Buphagidae: oxpeckers. Formerly usually included in Sturnidae.
      • Sturnidae: starlings and possibly Philippine creepers. Placement of latter in Muscicapoidea seems good, but inclusion in Sturnidae requires confirmation; possibly distinct family Rhabdornithidae.
      • Mimidae: mockingbirds and thrashers
    • Passeroidea – "finches", "New World warblers/blackbirds" and allies. Mostly herbivores including many seed-eaters but some specialized insectivores; near-global distribution centered on Palearctic and Americas. Includes the nine-primaried oscines (probably a subclade). A very high proportion of colorful and highly sexually dimorphic forms.
    • Passerida incertae sedis

Phylogeny

Living Passeriformes based on the "Taxonomy in Flux family phylogenetic tree" by John Boyd.[28]

Passeriformes classification .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}   Acanthisitti

Acanthisittidae

    Eupasseres Tyranni Eurylaimides

?Sapayoidae

     

Calyptomenidae

   

Pittidae

       

Philepittidae

   

Eurylaimidae

      Tyrannides Tyrannida  

Pipridae

     

Cotingidae

       

Tityridae

     

Oxyruncidae

   

Onychorhynchidae

         

Tyrannidae

     

Pipritidae

     

Platyrinchidae

     

Tachurididae

   

Rhynchocyclidae

                Furnariida    

Melanopareiidae

     

Thamnophilidae

   

Conopophagidae

         

Grallariidae

     

Rhinocryptidae

     

Formicariidae

   

Furnariidae

              Passeri Menurides  

Atrichornithidae

   

Menuridae

    Euoscines Climacterides  

Ptilonorhynchidae

   

Climacteridae

      Meliphagides  

Maluridae

     

Dasyornithidae

     

Pardalotidae

   

Meliphagidae

          Orthonychides  

Orthonychidae

   

Pomatostomidae

      Corvides  

Cinclosomatidae

     

Campephagidae

       

Neosittidae

   

Mohouidae

      Orioloidea  

Eulacestomidae

       

Psophodidae

     

Falcunculidae

   

Oreoicidae

           

Paramythiidae

     

Pteruthiidae

   

Vireonidae

         

Pachycephalidae

   

Oriolidae

            Malaconotoidea

Machaerirhynchidae

     

Artamidae

     

Rhagologidae

       

Platysteiridae

   

Vangidae

       

Aegithinidae

     

Pityriaseidae

   

Malaconotidae

              Corvoidea

?Dicruridae

     

Rhipiduridae

   

Lamproliidae

         

Monarchidae

     

Laniidae

   

Corvidae

         

Ifritidae

     

Melampittidae

     

Corcoracidae

   

Paradisaeidae

                      Passerides Melanocharitida

Melanocharitidae

    Cnemophilida

Cnemophilidae

    Petroicida  

Petroicidae

     

Notiomystidae

   

Callaeidae

        Eupetida  

Picathartidae

     

Chaetopidae

   

Eupetidae

       

Core Passerides

                        Core Passerides Sylviida Paroidea

Stenostiridae

     

Hyliotidae

     

Remizidae

   

Paridae

        Sylvioidea    

Nicatoridae

     

Panuridae

   

Alaudidae

         

Macrosphenidae

       

Cisticolidae

       

Pnoepygidae

   

Acrocephalidae

       

Locustellidae

     

Donacobiidae

   

Bernieridae

             

Hirundinidae

   

Pycnonotidae

       

Phylloscopidae

     

Cettiidae

     

Hyliidae

   

Aegithalidae

             

Sylviidae

   

Paradoxornithidae

       

Zosteropidae

     

Timaliidae

     

Pellorneidae

   

Leiothrichidae

                        Muscicapida Reguloidea

Regulidae

Bombycilloidea

Elachuridae

   

Mohoidae

     

Ptiliogonatidae

     

Bombycillidae

     

Dulidae

   

Hypocoliidae

          Certhioidea    

Tichodromadidae

   

Sittidae

       

Certhiidae

     

Troglodytidae

   

Polioptilidae

        Muscicapoidea    

Cinclidae

     

Turdidae

   

Muscicapidae

         

Buphagidae

     

Mimidae

   

Sturnidae

          Passerida  

Promeropidae

     

Arcanatoridae

       

Dicaeidae

   

Nectariniidae

       

Urocynchramidae

       

Irenidae

   

Chloropseidae

         

Peucedramidae

   

Prunellidae

      Estrild clade  

Ploceidae

     

Viduidae

   

Estrildidae

      Passerid clade  

Passeridae

     

Motacillidae

     

Fringillidae

     

Calcariidae

     

Rhodinocichlidae

       

Emberizidae

   

Passerellidae

     

?Zeledonia

   

?Teretistris

   

Phaenicophilidae

     

Icteridae

   

Parulidae

           

Mitrospingidae

   

Cardinalidae

   

Thraupidae

                                 

Footnotes

  1. ^ Mayr, Ernst (1946). "The Number of Species of Birds" (PDF). The Auk. 63 (1): 67. doi:10.2307/4079907..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ondrej.zicha(at)gmail.com, Ondrej Zicha;. "BioLib: Biological library". www.biolib.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  3. ^ Gill F & D Donsker (Eds). (2015). IOC World Bird List (v 5.1). doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.5.1 www.worldbirdnames.org [Accessed 2017/12/11].
  4. ^ Chatterjee, Sankar (2015). The Rise of Birds: 225 Million Years of Evolution. JHU Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 9781421415901.
  5. ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (2008), The Bird Class, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark
  6. ^ Brooke, Michael and Birkhead, Tim (1991) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521362059.
  7. ^ Jones, D. (2008). "Flight of fancy". Australian Geographic, (89), 18–19.
  8. ^ The name wren has been applied to other, unrelated birds in Australia and New Zealand. The 27 Australasian "wren" species in the family Maluridae are unrelated, as are the New Zealand wrens in the family Acanthisittidae; the antwrens in the family Thamnophilidae; and the wren-babblers of the families Timaliidae, Pellorneidae, and Pnoepygidae. For the monophyly of the "true wrens", Troglodytidae, see Barker, F. K. (May 2004). "Monophyly and relationships of wrens (Aves: Troglodytidae): a congruence analysis of heterogeneous mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (2): 486–504. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.08.005. PMID 15062790. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ Dyke, Gareth J.; Van Tuinen, Marcel (June 2004). "The evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes): Reconciling molecules, morphology and the fossil record". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (2): 153–177. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00118.x.
  10. ^ a b c Claramunt & Cracraft (2015)
  11. ^ Ericson, P.G.; Christidis, L.; Cooper, A.; Irestedt, M.; Jackson, J.; Johansson, U.S.; Norman, J.A. (7 February 2002). "A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 269 (1488): 235–241. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1877. PMC 1690883. PMID 11839192.
  12. ^ See e.g. Boles (1997), Manegold et al. (2004), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  13. ^ Boles (1997)
  14. ^ Mayr, G (2013). "The age of the crown group of passerine birds and its evolutionary significance–molecular calibrations versus the fossil record". Systematics and Biodiversity. 11 (1). doi:10.1080/14772000.2013.765521.
  15. ^ Worthy et al. (2007)
  16. ^ The last common ancestor of all songbirds most likely had a decidedly longer tail. See del Hoyo et al. (2003, 2004).
  17. ^ Specimen SMF Av 504. A flattened right hand of a passerine perhaps 10 cm long overall. If suboscine, perhaps closer to Cotingidae than to Eurylaimides: Roux (2002), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  18. ^ Huguenet et al. (2003), Mayr & Manegold (2006)
  19. ^ Specimens SMF Av 487–496; SMNS 86822, 86825-86826; MNHN SA 1259–1263: tibiotarsus remains of small, possibly basal Passeriformes: Manegold et al. (2004)
  20. ^ A partial coracoid of a probable Muscicapoidea, possibly Turdidae; distal tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus of a smallish to mid-sized passerine that may be the same as the preceding; proximal ulna and tarsometatarsus of a Paridae-sized passerine: Gál et al. (1998–1999, 2000)
  21. ^ A humerus diaphysis piece of a swallow-sized passerine: Hír et al. (2001)
  22. ^ Hír et al. (2001)
  23. ^ Manegold et al. (2004)
  24. ^ Distal right humerus, possibly suboscine: Noriega & Chiappe (1991, 1993)
  25. ^ The former does not even have recognized subspecies, while the latter is one of the most singular birds alive today. Good photos of a bearded reedling are for example here Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. and here.
  26. ^ del Hoyo et al. (2003–)
  27. ^ Lovette & Bermingham (2000), Cibois et al. (2001), Barker et al. (2002, 2004), Ericson & Johansson (2003), Beresford et al. (2005), Alström et al. (2006), Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006)
  28. ^ a b John Boyd. "Taxonomy in Flux family phylogenetic tree" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  29. ^ Gill, F., Wright, M. & Donsker, D. (2008). IOC World Bird Names (version 1.6). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/
  30. ^ Lovette, I.J. (2008). "Convergent evolution: Raising a family from the dead". Current Biology. 18 (24): R1132–4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.006. PMID 19108768.
  31. ^ Fleischer R.C.; James H.F. & Olson S.L. (23 December 2008). "Convergent evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific honeyeaters from distant songbird ancestors". Current Biology. 18 (24): 1927–1931. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.10.051. PMID 19084408.

References

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Passerine: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
Any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching. With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates.

The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from Passer domesticus, the scientific name of the eponymous species (the house sparrow) and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN