dcsimg
Reproduction
provided by Animal Diversity Web

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Heying, H. 2003. "Bufonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bufonidae.html
author
Heather Heying
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web
ID
Bufonidae/reproduction
Life Cycle
provided by Animal Diversity Web

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Heying, H. 2003. "Bufonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bufonidae.html
author
Heather Heying
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web
ID
Bufonidae/development
Morphology
provided by Animal Diversity Web

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Heying, H. 2003. "Bufonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bufonidae.html
author
Heather Heying
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web
ID
Bufonidae/physical_description
True frogs, Harlequin frogs, and Others
provided by EOL authors

The bufonids are species with a cosmopolitan distribution that notably vary in shape, size and diversity of coloration. In terms of size, the Bufonidae species range from diminutive species likeDendrophryniscus carvalhoiIzecksohn, 1994 (less than 20 mm SVL in adults), to species like those ofRhinella marina's group (about 230 mm SVL in adults).

In relation to coloration, there are species that have evident colors in their skins, reminding us the Dendrobatidae family.Atelophus pulcher(Boulenger, 1882), for example, shows a yellowish skin with black patches along their body. On the other hand, other species have a less outstanding coloration, likeRhinella jimi(Stevaux, 2002), which has a slightly greenish body with dark patches at the back.

A bufonids' unique feature is the presence of the Bidder's organ in the male tadpoles; this organ can also persist in the majority of adults. All adult individuals of the family lack teeth on their jaw, what makes the Bufonidae toothless frogs during the adult stage.

license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Paulo Sobrinho
partner site
EOL authors
ID
32786365
True toad
provided by wikipedia EN

Song of Common toad or European toad, Bufo bufo.

A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae, in the order Anura (frogs and toads). This is the only family of anurans in which all members are known as toads, although some may be called frogs (such as harlequin frogs). The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known.

Characteristics

True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]

True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin.

Male toads possess a Bidder's organ. Under the right conditions, the organ becomes an active ovary and the toad, in effect, becomes female.[2]

Taxonomy

The family Bufonidae contains about 500 species among 38 genera.

Genus Latin name and author Common name Species Adenomus Cope, 1861 Dwarf toads
3
Altiphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Ethiopian toads
2
Amazophrynella Fouquet et al., 2012
7
Amietophrynus Frost et al., 2006
38
Anaxyrus Tschudi, 1845
22
Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 Stream toads
29
Atelopus Duméril & Bibron, 1841 Stubfoot toads
96
Blythophryne Chandramouli et al., 2016[3] Andaman bush toads
1
Bufo Laurenti, 1768 Toads
37
Bufoides Pillai & Yazdani, 1973 Mawblang toad
1
Capensibufo Grandison, 1980 Cape toads
2
Churamiti Channing & Stanley, 2002
1
Crepidophryne Cope, 1889 Cerro Utyum toads
3
Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 Tree toads
10
Didynamipus Andersson, 1903 Four-digit toad
1
Duttaphrynus Frost et al., 2006
6
Epidalea Cope, 1864 Natterjack toad
1
Frostius Cannatella, 1986 Frost's toads
2
Ingerophrynus Frost et al., 2006
11
Laurentophryne Tihen, 1960 Parker's tree toad
1
Leptophryne Fitzinger, 1843 Indonesia tree toads
2
Melanophryniscus Gallardo, 1961 South American redbelly toads
20
Mertensophryne Tihen, 1960 Snouted frogs
20
Metaphryniscus Señaris, Ayarzagüena & Gorzula, 1994
1
Nectophryne Buchholz & Peters, 1875 African tree toads
2
Nectophrynoides Buchholz & Peters, 1875 African live-bearing toads
13
Nimbaphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Nimba toads
2
Oreophrynella Boulenger, 1895 Bush toads
8
Osornophryne Ruiz-Carranza & Hernández-Camacho, 1976 Plump toads
6
Parapelophryne Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2003
1
Pedostibes Günther, 1876 Asian tree toads
6
Pelophryne Barbour, 1938 Flathead toads
9
Pseudepidalea Frost, et al. 2006
16
Pseudobufo Tschudi, 1838 False toad
1
Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 Beaked toads
72
Sabahphrynus Matsui, Yambun, and Sudin, 2007 Sabah earless toad
1
Schismaderma Smith, 1849 African split-skin toad
1
Truebella Graybeal & Cannatella, 1995
2
Werneria Poche, 1903 Smalltongue toads
6
Wolterstorffina Mertens, 1939 Wolterstorff toads
3
Xanthophryne Biju, Van Bocxlaer, Giri, Loader & Bossuyt, 2009
2

References

  1. ^ a b Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G., eds. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-178560-2..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Brown, Federico D.; Del Pino, Eugenia M.; Krohne, Georg (December 2002). "Bidder's organ in the toad Bufo marinus: Effects of orchidectomy on the morphology and expression of lamina-associated polypeptide 2". Development, Growth & Differentiation. 44 (6): 527–535. doi:10.1046/j.1440-169X.2002.00665.x. ISSN 1440-169X.
  3. ^ S. R. Chandramouli, Karthikeyan, Vasudevan, S Harikrishnan, Sushil Kumar Dutta, S Jegath Janani, Richa Sharma, Indraneil Das, Ramesh Aggarwal. “A new genus and species of arboreal toad with phytotelmonous larvae, from the Andaman Islands, India (Lissamphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)” ZooKeys (2016) 555: 57-90, https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.555.6522

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
ee7b05f15fd5576392f134b01a5b2d69
True toad: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Song of Common toad or European toad, Bufo bufo.

A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae, in the order Anura (frogs and toads). This is the only family of anurans in which all members are known as toads, although some may be called frogs (such as harlequin frogs). The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
f36ca5c3c97b62836d838d83e216edcc