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Reproduction

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Male Red Admirals are territorial butterflies that patrol their areas in order to find female mates. The males typically perch upon sunlit spots, in the mid-afternoon, to wait for females to fly by. Once fertilized, female Red Admirals will lay their eggs on the upper surface of host plant leaves. The majority of Red Admiral butterflies are double-brooded (two generations grow a year); however, in Canada and the northern part of the United States they are single-brooded (one generation a year), and in the southern United States they are triple-brooded (three generations a year).

The general life cycle of the Red Admiral butterfly goes from an egg, to a caterpillar (pupate in a chrysalis), that emerges as an adult. The adult then mates, oviposits, and starts the cycle again.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Untitled

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The distinctive red-orange band across the wing of the Red Admiral makes this butterfly species easy to distinguish from other species. The common name "Red Admiral" compares this band to the chevrons on a naval uniform.

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Conservation Status

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The red admiral butterfly may appear to be rare at the outer edges of its range, but it is thought to be a secure species globally.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Benefits

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The adult stage of the Red Admiral is rarely harmful because mature Red Admiral butterflies feed mainly on nectar. The caterpillar stage, however, damages the plants that it feeds on, though it is not generally known to be an agricultural pest. The plants the Red Admiral caterpillars tend to eat include nettles, hops, and pellitory.

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Benefits

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The aesthetic beauty of the Red Admiral is one of the most underrated values of this species. Due to the Red Admirals wide-spread range throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia, their beauty can be enjoyed by many. Red Admirals are often found nectaring at red clover, aster, and Buddleia flowers; this combination of flowers and butterflies further enhances their aesthetic value.

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Mature Red Admirals tend to feed on fermenting fruits, bird droppings, and sap from trees. Adult Red Admirals are fond of nectaring at composite flowers, such as milkweed, aster, and alfalfa. The food sources for the larva include nettles from the genus Urtica, pellitory from the genus Parietoria, and hops from the genus Humulus.

Plant Foods: leaves; nectar; flowers; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Nectarivore )

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Distribution

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The range of Red Admirals extends around the Northern Hemisphere, from northern Canada to Guatemala in the western hemisphere, and from Scandinavia and northern Russia south to North Africa and China in the east. It is established on Bermuda, the Azores, and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic, and the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific. It has been introduced to and breeds in New Zealand as well.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); neotropical (Native ); oceanic islands (Introduced , Native )

Other Geographic Terms: holarctic

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Habitat

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Red Admirals tend to be found in moist environments such as marshes, woods, fields, and well-watered gardens. These butterflies cannot stand extreme winter cold and are forced to migrate southward during the winter months to warmer climates. During this migration they can be found in habitats ranging from subtropics to tundras. The caterpillars of this species live on the plants they feed on (see Food Habits below).

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest

Wetlands: marsh

Other Habitat Features: suburban

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Morphology

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The characteristic coloration of the Red Admiral Butterfly is a black hindwing with a red-orange marginal band; the dorsal forewing is also black with white markings near the apex. The wing span of the Red Admiral ranges between 1.75 and 3 inches. These butterflies tend to have a brighter coloration and a larger body mass during the summer months than during the winter. The legs and eyes of the Red Admiral tend to be hairy and the head is moderately large.

A mature caterpillar of the larvae stage is cylindrical in shape and has branching spines arranged in rows lengthwise.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Downing, A. 2000. "Vanessa atalanta" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vanessa_atalanta.html
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Biology

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Red admirals arriving in Britain following migration have usually mated before commencing their journey. Those that have overwintered in Britain mate after emergence. Females lay their eggs singly on nettle leaves, and after about a week the eggs hatch (3). The caterpillars create a tent-like shelter from nettle leaves, in which they feed and pupate (3). The adults emerge after 2-3 weeks (3); they either hibernate or migrate southwards towards the end of summer. In southern Britain, it has been discovered that eggs and caterpillars are able to survive the winter, and emerge in the adult form in spring (2).
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Conservation

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Conservation action has not been targeted at this widespread and common butterfly.
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Description

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The red admiral is a familiar butterfly, and is easy to identify thanks to its striking patterning; the black forewings feature prominent red bars and white spots. The undersides of the hindwings are delicately patterned with brown and black (1), which provides excellent camouflage when this butterfly is roosting on tree trunks (2). The caterpillar grows to 3.5 cm in length, and occurs in a number of forms of varying colour. Dark forms are greyish-black, and have black spines and yellow patches along each side. Various pale forms also occur; they are either green or yellowish with pale spines and black markings (3).
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Habitat

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Occurs in a huge range of habitats, usually where the most important caterpillar foodplant, the common nettle (Urtica dioica) occurs (2). Adults are often seen in gardens feeding on nectar on buddleias (such as Buddleja davidii), or feeding on rotten fruit (2).
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Range

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This common migratory species has a wide distribution throughout Britain. Adults emerge after hibernation in January and March, and are joined by butterflies that have migrated from North Africa and southern Europe between May and August. As the summer progresses, further immigrants arrive from Spain and Portugal, and later still from central Europe and France (2). After mid-August red admirals in Britain begin to move southwards and the majority spend the winter in warmer climes (2). Globally, this butterfly has a wide distribution, and is known across central and southern Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America (2).
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Status

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This widespread and common species is not threatened. It is not listed under any conservation designations (2).
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Threats

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This species is not currently threatened.
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Abundance

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Common

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Behaviour

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Larvae form a tent-like feeding shelter by tying together the edges of the leaf on which they are feeding

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Description

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Size 56-63 mm. Unmistakable; sexes similar.It is easy to identify dut to striking patterning; the black forewings feature prominent red bars and white spots. The undersides of the hindwings are delicately patterned with brown and black

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Distribution in Egypt

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Northern regions

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Global Distribution

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Widespread (Holarctic)

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Habitat

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Cultivated areas.Red Admirals tend to be found in moist environments such as marshes, woods, fields, and well-watered gardens.

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IUCN

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Not Assessed (not resident in Egypt)

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Life Cycle

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The eggs are barrel-shaped and take about a week to hatch. The larvae are variable in colour, and take  two to three weeks to form pupae then adults emerge.

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Records

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34 records. Latest in 1987 (Alexandria)

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Status in Egypt

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Migrant. Not normally breed in Egypt (Larsen 1990)

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The Flight Period

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February and September-November

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Trophic Strategy

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Host-plants: Urtica and Parietaria (Urticaceae).

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Brief Summary

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The Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) is a well-known colourful butterfly, found in temperate Europe, Asia and North America. The Red Admiral has a 45–50 mm (1.8–2.0 in) wing span (Shalaway 2004). The species is resident only in warmer areas, but migrates north in spring, and sometimes again in autumn.

This large butterfly is identified by its striking dark brown, red, and black wing pattern. More specifically, the dark wings possess orange bands that cross the fore wings and on the outer edge of the hind wings; white spots on the dorsal fore wings near the front margin; reddish bars on dorsal surface of all four wings The caterpillar feeds on nettles, and the adult drinks from flowering plants like the Buddleia and overripe fruit.

In northern Europe, it is one of the last butterflies to be seen before winter sets in, often feeding on the flowers of ivy on sunny days. The Red Admiral is also known to hibernate, re-emerging individuals showing prominently darker colourings than first brood subjects. The butterfly also flies on sunny winter days, especially in southern Europe.

In North America, the Red Admiral generally has two broods from March through October. Most of North America must be recolonized each spring by southern migrants, but this species over-winters in south Texas.

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Diagnostic Description

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Red admirals have a wingspan of 1 7/8–2 1/2 inches (48-65 mm). The upper front wing is black with white apical spots and an orange median band. The upper hind wing has an orange marginal outer band. The underside of the front wing has a blue curcle with a dark center between the orange median band and an outer white rectangular spot.
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North American Ecology (US and Canada)

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Vanessa atalanta is resident across the United States and southern Canada, migrating further north into Canada, and ranges south to Guatemala and the Greater Antilles. It is also native to northern Africa and Eurasia, and established elsewhere (Scott 1986). Habitats are almost everywhere from the subtropics to the edge of the arctic tundra. Host plants are herbaceous; known hosts include species mostly from family Urticaceae and also one species from Moraceae. Eggs are laid on the host plant singly. Individuals overwinter as adults (possibly pupae). There are two flights in the northern part of the range, with approximate flight times late June-early Aug., and four or more flights nearly all year in the southern part of their range. Several known mass flights indicate great movements of this species. (Scott 1986).
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Behavior

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Adults feed on sap, fruit, dung and flower nectar. Males perch for females (Scott, 1986).
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Life Cycle

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Les oeufs, crénelés, sont déposés isolément sur la face supérieure des feuilles de la plante hôte. Chenille Taille : 35 mm au dernier stade. Apparence : La chenille est noire, ponctuée de blanc et marquée sur les flancs de taches blanches, le corps couvert d'épines noires ramifiées. Attention toutefois : la chenille est très variable chez cette espèce, et on peut en trouver des spécimens ocres, vert grisâtre... Plante hôte : Ortie. Chrysalide: Chrysalide: anguleuse de couleur grise, elle est attachée au support par des sortes de crochets (le crémaster) et on distingue sur ses flancs des taches jaunâtres, d'étendue variable. Sur le dessus, deux rangées de petites épines s'étirent de part et d'autre le long du dos.
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Brief Summary

provided by Papillons de Jardin
Grand papillon au vol puissant, le Vulcain peut migrer à la bonne saison jusqu'aux limites du cercle polaire. Il a aussi réussi à se glisser dans les bagages des hommes et a suivi les voyageurs aux Antilles, en Amérique du Nord et même en Nouvelle-Zélande. Cette performance est peut-être due à son habitude de chercher un abri aux premiers froids, car la dernière génération annuelle de ce papillon passe l'hiver sous forme adulte, habituellement dans les buissons de lierre, mais aussi dans les granges et les greniers. À l'automne, il se régale de fruits tombés au sol ou de la sève des arbres. Observation en vol : Avril à octobre. Nombre de générations par an : 1. Milieux de vie : Bords de chemins, friches, jardins, vergers, lisières, prairies, haies. Description Adulte Envergure : 60-65 mm. Apparence : Chez le mâle comme chez la femelle, le fond du dessus des ailes est noir, coupé sur l'aile avant par une bande rouge et marqué au bout par des taches blanches. Sur l'aile arrière, une bande rouge marquée de points noirs borde l'aile. Sur le dessous, les ailes avant portent, en plus terne, les mêmes marques qu'au dessus. Le dessous des ailes arrière est par contre marron marbré, cette couleur assurant un bon camouflage.
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Conservation Status

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Not of concern.
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Cyclicity

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Occurs throughout the season, most common in June and again in August.
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Distribution

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Widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, occuring from northern Africa across most of Eurasia, and south to Guatemala in the New World; occasionally straying as far north as Iceland (Scott 1986).
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General Description

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"The upperside wing pattern, with bold red bands and white apical spots on a black background, is unique and unlike any other Alberta species. The North American populations are slightly different in appearance from the European ones, and are generally referred to as subspecies rubria. The common name is somewhat misleading, since this is not an Admiral (genus Limentitis) at all; for this reason, some authors have reverted to an older name, the Red Admirable (Pyle 2002)."
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Habitat

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Widespread throughout most of the province, found especially near wooded areas.
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Life Cycle

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The light-green eggs are barrel-shaped and have nine vertical ribs. The mature larva are variable in colour, ranging from cream to grey, brown or black with fine white spots and a lateral stripe of greenish-yellow patches (Guppy & Shepard 2001). Larvae bear bear long branching spines that are generally black (Guppy & Shepard 2001). Larvae form a tent-like feeding shelter by tying together the edges of the leaf on which they are feeding (Guppy & Shepard 2001). It is unclear whether or not the Red Admiral survives the Alberta winter; the summer broods (mid-June onwards) are apparently the offspring of spring migrants. Remarkably, the Red Admiral is able to complete at least two broods in southern Canada after the arrival of spring migrants (Guppy & Shepard 2001, Layberry et al. 1998), with peak emergences in mid to late June and again in August.
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Trophic Strategy

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The larvae feed on nettles (Urtica spp.) (Scott 1986), and can be found on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) in Alberta. Adults are attracted to rotting fruit and dung, but also flower nectar (Bird et al. 1995, Guppy & Shepard 2001).
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Vanessa atalanta

provided by wikipedia EN

Vanessa atalanta, the red admiral or previously, the red admirable,[2] is a well-characterized, medium-sized butterfly with black wings, orange bands, and white spots. It has a wingspan of about 2 inches (5 cm).[3] It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The red admiral is widely distributed across temperate regions of North Africa, the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean.[4] It resides in warmer areas, but migrates north in spring and sometimes again in autumn. Typically found in moist woodlands, the red admiral caterpillar's primary host plant is the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica); it can also be found on the false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica).[5] The adult butterfly drinks from flowering plants like Buddleia and overripe fruit. Red admirals are territorial; females will only mate with males that hold territory. Males with superior flight abilities are more likely to successfully court females. It is known as an unusually people-friendly butterfly, often landing on and using humans as perches.

Geographic range

The red admiral is found in temperate regions of North Africa, North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and island regions of Hawaii, and the Caribbean.[4]

Description

The forewing of this butterfly bears on a black ground an oblique vermilion band and a group of white subapical spots. On the hindwing the larger portion of the distal margin is red, with a row of small black spots and at the anal angle an elongate blue spot. The underside is partly variegated with blue; the forewing is on the whole similar in markings to the upper, while the hindwing is brightly variegated and clouded, bearing black markings, of which those in the cell resemble a figure (on the left wing 18 or 98, on the right 81 or 89); in the middle of the costal area there is a pale patch and in the distal marginal area a row of ocellus-like spots. Sometimes, especially in the female, the red band of the forewing bears a small white spot in the middle.

Biology

In northern Europe, it is one of the last butterflies to be seen before winter sets in, often feeding on the flowers of ivy on sunny days. The red admiral is also known to hibernate,[6] re-emerging individuals showing prominently darker colors than the first brood. The butterfly also flies on sunny winter days, especially in southern Europe.

In North America, the red admiral generally has two broods from March through October. Most of North America must be recolonized each spring by southern migrants, but the species over winters in south Texas.

Life cycle

Larval and pupal stages

Red admiral larvae measure approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) in length. Their coloration is variable, but they are usually black with white spots and spines. These spines persist into the pupal phase.[7]

In laboratory tests where larvae were reared at various constant temperatures, a difference in pupal period and coloration was found. At higher temperatures, around 32 degrees Celsius (90 °F), the pupal period of the red admiral is 6 days. At 11 to 18 degrees Celsius (51 to 64 °F) this period increases to 18 to 50 days. At even lower temperatures around 7 degrees Celsius (45 °F), the pupal period lasts between 47 and 82 days. The pupae are bright scarlet at high temperatures and black with a smaller scarlet area at low temperatures.[8] This differential coloration at various temperatures may explain why the summer form of the red admiral is brighter and more heavily pigmented than the winter form.[4]

The primary host plant for the red admiral is the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), but it can also be found on the false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica).[5] Certain plants of the families Compositae and Cannabaceae may also be used as hosts.[9]

Adult stage

The red admiral is identified by its striking black, orange, and white wing pattern. On the dorsal side, its dark wings possess orange bands on the middle of the forewings and the outer edge of the hindwings. The distal ends of the forewings contain white spots. The ventral side of the wings are brown with patches of red, white, and black. The hindwings have a brown marbled pattern. The red admiral has summer and winter morphs. Summer red admirals are larger and more pigmented than winter morphs. The wingspan ranges from 1.75 to 2.50 inches (4.4 to 6.4 cm).[10]

  • "

    Eggs

  • "

    Early instar

  • "

    Late instar

  • "

    Chrysalis

  • "

    Adult butterfly (dorsal)

  • "

    Adult butterfly (ventral)

Territoriality

Male red admirals are territorial and perch during the afternoon until sunset. Larger territories are optimal and subject to intrusion by other males more frequently than smaller territories. Territories tend to be oval, 8–24 feet (2.4–7.3 m) long and 13–42 feet (4.0–12.8 m) wide. Males patrol their territory by flying around the perimeter between 7 and 30 times per hour. On average, territory holders interact with intruders 10 to 15 times per hour.[11]

When another male encroaches on a red admiral's territory, the resident chases away the intruder, often in a vertical, helical path to disorient or tire out the intruder while minimizing the horizontal distance it travels from its perch. The red admiral immediately returns to its territory after chasing off encroaching males. Time spent patrolling increases as number of the intruder interactions increases.[12]

Patrolling behavior is correlated with warmer air temperatures, so males begin patrolling early and continue later on warmer days.[11] Overcast skies usually led to patrolling later in the day. It is not clear whether this later start time is due to lower air temperature or a direct effect of decreased solar radiation. Another theory is that males believe it is earlier in the morning on cloudy days because of the reduced solar radiation.[12]

Mating

Male red admirals court females for several hours before they begin mating. Because of female choice, only males with territory have the opportunity to mate. Females select males with traits that will increase the mating success of their offspring. In order to maintain their territory, males fly around and patrol the area 7 to 30 times per hour. Only males of exceptional flying ability are able to chase off intruding males and successfully court females.[13]

"
Vanessa atalanta on flower, Mount Dikti

Migration

Mating usually occurs in late fall or early winter following collective migration to southern regions with a warmer climate. The red admiral's main host plant, stinging nettle, is most abundant during this migration. Larval development proceeds through winter and adults are first sighted in early spring. The new generation of adults migrates north before mating, because food is usually diminished by late spring.[14] During migration, the red admiral flies at high altitudes where high-speed winds carry the butterfly, requiring less energy.[15]

Physiology

Vision

Red admirals have color vision in the 440–590 nm range of the visible spectrum which includes indigo, blue, green, and yellow. They have compound eyes with a transparent, crystalline structure called a rhabdom which is similar in function to a human retina. These butterflies do not have the specific lateral filtering pigments coating their rhabdom found in some other nymphalid butterflies that likely evolved later. A consequence of this lack of pigment is that the red admiral cannot differentiate between colors in the 590–640 nm range, which includes orange and red. In species such as the monarch butterfly that express these lateral filtering pigments, higher wavelengths of light are altered, so they can excite the sensory photopigments. This physiological difference between butterfly species provides insight into the evolutionary adaptation of color vision.[16]

Conservation

Climate change

Spring temperatures in central England between 1976 and 1998 increased by 1.5 degrees Celsius and summer temperatures increased by 1 degree Celsius. Following this 22-year period of warming, the red admiral appeared six weeks earlier in the year. Of 35 species of butterflies studied in central England, the change in the duration of flight period was most significant in the red admiral, exhibiting a 39.8 day increase. These changes in migration time and length could result in an increased abundance of red admirals and a northward range expansion. Warmer climates could lead to an increase in time spent finding mates, laying eggs, and collecting nectar. Conversely, more frequent droughts associated with climate change would decrease egg survival and lead to habitat and host plant destruction.[17]

In popular culture

The red admiral features in several works of Vladimir Nabokov: Speak, Memory (1951), Pale Fire (1962), and King, Queen, Knave (1968).[18]

References

  1. ^ a b "Vanessa Fabricius, 1807" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms
  2. ^ Oxford Living Dictionaries. red admirable. Oxford University Press. retrieved March 30, 2017.
  3. ^ Shalaway, Scott (2004). Butterflies in the Backyard. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8117-2695-5.
  4. ^ a b c Opler, Paul A.; Krizek, George O. (1984). Butterflies East of the Great Plains: An Illustrated Natural History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801829383. OCLC 9412517.
  5. ^ a b Bryant, Simon; Thomas, Chris; Bale, Jeffrey (November 1, 1997). "Nettle-feeding nymphalid butterflies: temperature, development and distribution". Ecological Entomology. 22 (4): 390–398. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.1997.00082.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  6. ^ Scott, J. A. (1999). "Hibernal diapause of North American Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea" (PDF). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. 18 (3): 171–200.
  7. ^ Minno, Marc C.; Butler, Jerry F.; Hall, Donald W. (2005). Florida Butterfly Caterpillars and their Host Plants. Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0813027890. OCLC 56404941.
  8. ^ Merrifield, Frederic (March 1, 1893). "II. The effects of temperature in the pupal stage on the colouring of Pieris napi, Vanessa atalanta, Chrysophanus phlœas, and Ephyra punctaria". Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 41 (1): 55–67. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1893.tb02052.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  9. ^ "HOSTS – The Hostplants and Caterpillars Database at the Natural History Museum". Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  10. ^ Daniels, Jaret C. (2003). Butterflies of Florida Field Guide. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications. ISBN 978-1591930051. OCLC 53046492.
  11. ^ a b Justin, Bitzer, Royce (1995). Territorial behavior of the Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (Thesis). Iowa State University.
  12. ^ a b Bitzer, Royce J.; Shaw, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1995). "Territorial behavior of the red admiral, Vanessa atalanta (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) I. The role of climatic factors and early interaction frequency on territorial start time". Journal of Insect Behavior. 8 (1): 47–66. doi:10.1007/bf01990969. ISSN 0892-7553.
  13. ^ Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J.; Wiklund, Christer (July 7, 2007). "Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1618): 1659–1665. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0311. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 1914333. PMID 17472909.
  14. ^ Stefanescu, Constantí (October 1, 2001). "The nature of migration in the red admiral butterfly Vanessa atalanta: evidence from the population ecology in its southern range". Ecological Entomology. 26 (5): 525–536. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.2001.00347.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  15. ^ Mikkola, Kauri (January 1, 2013). "The Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a true seasonal migrant: an evolutionary puzzle resolved?". European Journal of Entomology. 100 (4): 625–626. doi:10.14411/eje.2003.091. ISSN 1210-5759.
  16. ^ Frentiu, Francesca D.; Bernard, Gary D.; Cuevas, Cristina I.; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Prudic, Kathleen L.; Briscoe, Adriana D. (May 15, 2007). "Adaptive evolution of color vision as seen through the eyes of butterflies". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (suppl 1): 8634–8640. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701447104. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1876440. PMID 17494749.
  17. ^ Roy, D. B.; Sparks, T. H. (April 1, 2000). "Phenology of British butterflies and climate change". Global Change Biology. 6 (4): 407–416. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00322.x. ISSN 1365-2486.
  18. ^ Appel, Alfred (1971). "Conversations with Nabokov". NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction. 4 (3): 209–222. doi:10.2307/1345118. JSTOR 1345118.
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Vanessa atalanta: Brief Summary

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Vanessa atalanta, the red admiral or previously, the red admirable, is a well-characterized, medium-sized butterfly with black wings, orange bands, and white spots. It has a wingspan of about 2 inches (5 cm). It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The red admiral is widely distributed across temperate regions of North Africa, the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean. It resides in warmer areas, but migrates north in spring and sometimes again in autumn. Typically found in moist woodlands, the red admiral caterpillar's primary host plant is the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica); it can also be found on the false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica). The adult butterfly drinks from flowering plants like Buddleia and overripe fruit. Red admirals are territorial; females will only mate with males that hold territory. Males with superior flight abilities are more likely to successfully court females. It is known as an unusually people-friendly butterfly, often landing on and using humans as perches.

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