dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Euplectrus: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Euplectrus is a genus of hymenopteran insects of the family Eulophidae.

    Euplectrus is a cosmopolitan genus and are easily distinguished from other members of the subfamily Eulophinae by three characteristics i.e. the hind tibial spurs are very long and strong with the longest spur being no less than half as long as hind tarsus and is used to anchor the female wasp to the dorsum of the host caterpillar during oviposition; the scutellum has no lateral grooves or pit-rows; and propodeum has a single strong median carina. It is a morphologically conservative genus and the species vary slightly from one another and this creates difficulties in identifying the species.

    Euplectrus wasps have been found as parasitoids on the caterpillars of the families Erebidae, Euteliidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, Notodontidae, Sphingidae and Tortricidae. The larvae of all species of Euplectrus are greenish-yellow and are very obvious on the host caterpillar's cuticle to which they are very firmly attached. The parasitized caterpillars feed and remain active but stop growing and moulting.]].

     src= Euplectrus sp. - lifecycle A - 02 - dispersing (2009-04-21)

    The larvae of the wasps in the genus Euplectrus are external parasitoids of the caterpillars of various species of Lepidoptera. They are normally gregarious, laying between five and several hundred eggs per host caterpillar, although a few species lay a single egg on each host. SOme species paralyse the host while others do not but in all cases the female injects the host with venom prior to oviposition. The venom stops the host from going through ecdysis, as the wasp larvae would be shed with the moulted cuticle and eventually causing the caterpillar to die, although the wasp larvae will have fully developed and spun a cocoon by that time. The eggs are positioned under the host's cuticle but above the hypodermis each egg has a pedicel with an anchor at its end which fastens the egg to the host. The eggs are normally laid on the back of the caterpillar and the larvae stay at the laying site until they complete their development sucking on the caterpillar's haemolymph. When they have completed their growth they migrate to the underside of the caterpillar and spin a loose cocoon in which they pupate, in some species the larvae spin communal cocoons around the dying host. The ability of Euplectrus larvae to spin cocoons is unique among the Eulophidae and the silk which forms the cocoon is produced in modified malpighian tubules and is exuded from the anal opening. The larva undergoes 3–5 molts before pupation and the development from oviposition to imago is normally no longer than two weeks.

     src= Euplectrus sp. - lifecycle B - 06 - cocoons on a Noctuidae caterpillar (2010-05-05)
    license
    cc-by-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Wikipedia authors and editors
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    wikipedia
    ID
    7ace8905cb7b295964b743021afe8a1b

Comprehensive Description

    Description
    provided by Zookeys
    Antenna in both sexes with six flagellomeres, including a 2-segmented clava (e.g. Figs 58, 59, 63); male scape usually wider than female scape and with sensory pores that are usually confined to ventral margin, but occasionally scattered over the inner or outer lateral surface; in the latter case the scape is ± strongly swollen (e.g. Figs 59, 726). Mandibles and palpi usually white, occasionally dark brown. Head dark and shiny, lower face usually ± pale, pale area reaching from eye to eye (e.g. Figs 139, 140), to confined to a pale spot below toruli (e.g. Figs 37, 38); in some species the lower face is completely dark (e.g. Figs 54, 55). Lower frons smooth, upper frons with very weak reticulation (e.g. Figs 47, 50); 1–4 rows of setae close to eyes. Occipital margin rounded (e.g. Fig. 48) to carinate (e.g. Fig. 51). Mesoscutum with raised and distinct reticulation (e.g. Figs 49, 52); midlobe with a complete median carina and with three pairs of setae, two pairs close to notauli and one pair medially; each sidelobe with three strong setae close to posterior margin and with 5–18 scattered setae in front of strong setae; notauli distinct throughout. Scutellum 0.8–1.1× as long as wide, usually convex but occasionally almost flat, with two pairs of setae close to lateral margins (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Scutoscutellar suture wide (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Axillae with very weak reticulation (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Dorsellum 0.2× as long (medially) as wide, and 0.3× as long as length of median propodeum, ± flat, smooth and shiny, with (e.g. Figs 733–738) or without (e.g. Figs 741, 743) a groove or foveae along anterior margin, posterior margin with two oblong-rounded indentations laterally and medially with 2–4 (usually two) spines. Propodeum anteromedially with a triangular to semicircular cup that continues backwards as a narrow median carina (e.g. Figs 733–738) that splits into two carinae just before posterior margin of propodeum, carinae reach down to supracoxal flanges; propodeal callus with 5–15 setae. Hind tibial spurs long and strong, longest spur usually at least half as long as length of hind tarsus (Figs 3, 424, 425). Wings transparent, veins yellowish-white to yellowish-brown and setae dark brown to black; submarginal vein usually with five setae, occasionally four or six; speculum present and usually closed, very occasionally open below and towards base of wing; costal cell with 1–2 rows of setae on ventral surface, and fore margin with 0–8 setae close to marginal vein; with 13–36 admarginal setae, in 1–3 rows. Petiole black with strong sculpture, 0.5–1.5× as long as wide, frequently longer in male. Female gaster ± ovate to rounded (e.g. Figs 56, 62), male gaster rounded ± triangular (e.g. Figs 125, 193). However, it should be noted that the shape and length of the gaster are affected by how the specimen has been killed and subsequently dried.
    license
    cc-by-3.0
    copyright
    Christer Hansson, M. Alex Smith, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs
    bibliographic citation
    Hansson C, Smith M, Janzen D, Hallwachs W (2015) Integrative taxonomy of New World Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), with focus on 55 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica ZooKeys (485): 1–236
    author
    Christer Hansson
    author
    M. Alex Smith
    author
    Daniel H. Janzen
    author
    Winnie Hallwachs
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Zookeys
    ID
    zookeys.485.9124.sp_1_description
    Euplectrus
    provided by wikipedia

    Euplectrus is a genus of hymenopteran insects of the family Eulophidae.

    Euplectrus is a cosmopolitan genus and are easily distinguished from other members of the subfamily Eulophinae by three characteristics i.e. the hind tibial spurs are very long and strong with the longest spur being no less than half as long as hind tarsus and is used to anchor the female wasp to the dorsum of the host caterpillar during oviposition; the scutellum has no lateral grooves or pit-rows; and propodeum has a single strong median carina. It is a morphologically conservative genus and the species vary slightly from one another and this creates difficulties in identifying the species.[1]

    Euplectrus wasps have been found as parasitoids on the caterpillars of the families Erebidae, Euteliidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, Notodontidae, Sphingidae and Tortricidae.[2][1] The larvae of all species of Euplectrus are greenish-yellow and are very obvious on the host caterpillar's cuticle to which they are very firmly attached. The parasitized caterpillars feed and remain active but stop growing and moulting.]].[1]

     src=
    Euplectrus sp. - lifecycle A - 02 - dispersing (2009-04-21)

    The larvae of the wasps in the genus Euplectrus are external parasitoids of the caterpillars of various species of Lepidoptera. They are normally gregarious, laying between five and several hundred eggs per host caterpillar, although a few species lay a single egg on each host. SOme species paralyse the host while others do not but in all cases the female injects the host with venom prior to oviposition. The venom stops the host from going through ecdysis, as the wasp larvae would be shed with the moulted cuticle and eventually causing the caterpillar to die, although the wasp larvae will have fully developed and spun a cocoon by that time. The eggs are positioned under the host's cuticle but above the hypodermis each egg has a pedicel with an anchor at its end which fastens the egg to the host. The eggs are normally laid on the back of the caterpillar and the larvae stay at the laying site until they complete their development sucking on the caterpillar's haemolymph. When they have completed their growth they migrate to the underside of the caterpillar and spin a loose cocoon in which they pupate, in some species the larvae spin communal cocoons around the dying host. The ability of Euplectrus larvae to spin cocoons is unique among the Eulophidae and the silk which forms the cocoon is produced in modified malpighian tubules and is exuded from the anal opening. The larva undergoes 3–5 molts before pupation and the development from oviposition to imago is normally no longer than two weeks.[1]

     src=
    Euplectrus sp. - lifecycle B - 06 - cocoons on a Noctuidae caterpillar (2010-05-05)

    References

    1. ^ a b c d Christer Hansson; M. Alex Smith; Daniel H. Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs (2015). "Integrative taxonomy of New World Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), with focus on 55 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica". Zootaxa. 485: 1–236. doi:10.3897/zookeys.485.9124..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Chao-Dong Zhu; Da-Wei Huang (2003). "A Study of the Genus Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 42 (1): 140–164.
     title=
    license
    cc-by-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Wikipedia authors and editors
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    wikipedia
    ID
    2266458a2f4ee447d925a8cfbf36b0b3

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Zookeys
    Cosmopolitan (Noyes 2014).
    license
    cc-by-3.0
    copyright
    Christer Hansson, M. Alex Smith, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs
    bibliographic citation
    Hansson C, Smith M, Janzen D, Hallwachs W (2015) Integrative taxonomy of New World Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), with focus on 55 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica ZooKeys (485): 1–236
    author
    Christer Hansson
    author
    M. Alex Smith
    author
    Daniel H. Janzen
    author
    Winnie Hallwachs
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Zookeys
    ID
    zookeys.485.9124.sp_1_distribution