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Sternaspidae

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Sternaspidae, commonly known as mud owls,[2] are a family of marine polychaete worms with short swollen bodies. They have a global distribution and live buried in soft sediment at depths varying from the intertidal zone to 4,400 m (14,400 ft).[2]

Description

Members of this family have oval or dumbbell-shaped bodies with a small number of segments, the prostomium often being separated from the rest of the body by a narrower segment. The peristomium is reduced to lips. The first segment of the prostomium, bears the mouth but no antennae, palps or nuchal organ. The first three segments bear rows of chaetae (bristles) and the next seven segments bear lateral bundles of tiny chaetae. The parapodia present on each segment are biramous except for those near the posterior end of the body which are uniramous. On the ventral side of the posterior of the body there are two chitinised calcareous plates forming a shield, the margins of which are rimmed with bundles of capillary chaetae. A number of long, semi-coiled, thread-like gills arise from the base of the shield. The deep yellow or reddish hard shield distinguishes members of this family from other worm groups.[3][4]

Behaviour

This worm lives submerged, head-down in the sediment, with its thread-like gills on the surface, presumably to facilitate oxygen take-up. It is a deposit feeder and the pharynx is eversible. It is presumed that the worm scoops up dollops of sediment with the pharynx and then extracts the nutrients from what is swallowed as the main bulk passes through the long, coiled gut.[3]

Genera

The World Register of Marine Species lists the following genera:-[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Read, Geoffrey (2010). "Sternaspidae - Carus, 1863". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I. (2013). "Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)". ZooKeys. 286: 1–74.
  3. ^ a b Australian Biological Resources Study (2000). Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Csiro Publishing. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-643-06571-0.
  4. ^ M.J. de Kluijver. "Family Sternaspidae". Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
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Sternaspidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sternaspidae, commonly known as mud owls, are a family of marine polychaete worms with short swollen bodies. They have a global distribution and live buried in soft sediment at depths varying from the intertidal zone to 4,400 m (14,400 ft).

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Classification

provided by World Register of Marine Species
[From Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo (2013:18)] "An analysis of morphology and six genes (Zrzavý et al. 2009) did not clarify the affinities for sternaspids because different approaches gave different topologies or affinities. Thus, their Bayesian combination indicates Sternaspidae are a sister group to a clade including sabellids-serpulids, sabellariids, and Trochochaeta- Spionidae-Poecilochaetus. The unweighted maximum-parsimony indicates they form a clade with sabellariids, which is a sister group to Sabellidae and Trochochaeta-Spionidae- Poecilochaetus. The weighted maximum-parsimony indicates they group with Fauveliopsidae, and together become a sister group for Sabellidae- Serpulidae, which is a sister group to Sabellariidae and the other grouped taxa of former analysis."
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bibliographic citation
Drennan, Regan; Wiklund, Helena; Rouse, Greg W.; Georgieva, Magdalena N.; Wu, Xuwen; Kobayashi, Genki; Yoshino, Kenji; Glover, Adrian G. (2019). Taxonomy and phylogeny of mud owls (Annelida: Sternaspidae), including a new synonymy and new records from the Southern Ocean, North East Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean: challenges in morphological delimitation. <em>Marine Biodiversity.</em> efirst: 1-39. Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio. 2013. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae). ZooKeys 286(0): 1-74 Carus, J. Victor 1863. Vermes, in W. C. H. Peters, J.V. Carus and C.E.A. Gerstäcker eds., Handbuch der zoologie: Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann, p. 422-484.
Contributor
Read, Geoffrey, G.B.