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Calcareous Tubeworms

Serpulidae

Serpulidae

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The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta. The members of this family differ from other sabellid tube worms in that they have a specialized operculum that blocks the entrance of their tubes when they withdraw into the tubes. In addition, serpulids secrete tubes of calcium carbonate. Serpulids are the most important biomineralizers among annelids. About 300 species in the family Serpulidae are known, all but one of which live in saline waters. The earliest serpulids are known from the Permian (Wordian to late Permian).[1]

The blood of most species of serpulid and sabellid worms contains the oxygen-binding pigment chlorocruorin. This is used to transport oxygen to the tissues. It has an affinity for carbon monoxide which is 570 times as strong as that of the haemoglobin found in human blood.[3]

Empty serpulid shells can sometimes be confused with the shells of a family of marine gastropod mollusks, the Vermetidae or worm snails. The most obvious difference is that serpulid shells are dull inside, whereas the molluscan vermetid shells are shiny inside.

Selected genera

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Pecten sp. with serpulid worm encrusters; Duck Harbor Beach on Cape Cod Bay, Wellfleet, Massachusetts.

References

Citations
  1. ^ a b Rossana Sanfilippo; Antonietta Rosso; Agatino Reitano; Gianni Insacco (2017). "First record of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes from the Permian of Sicily". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 62 (1): 25–38. doi:10.4202/app.00288.2016.
  2. ^ Read G, Fauchald K, eds. (2019). "Serpulidae Rafinesque, 1815". World Polychaeta database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  3. ^ Cowles, David (2006). "Serpula vermicularis Linnaeus, 1767". Invertebrates of the Salish Sea. Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory at Walla Walla University. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
  4. ^ Read, G.; Fauchald, K., eds. (2014). "Filograna Berkeley, 1835". World Polychaeta database. Retrieved 2015-02-22 – via World Register of Marine Species.
  5. ^ Prentiss, N.K.; Vasileiadou, K.; Faulwetter, S.; et al. (2014). "A new genus and species of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellida) from the Caribbean Sea" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3900 (2): 204–222. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3900.2.2.
General
  • Abbott, R. Tucker (1986). Seashells of North America. St. Martin's Press.
  • ten Hove, H.A.; van den Hurk, P. (1993). "A review of recent and fossil serpulid 'reefs'; actuopalaeontology and the 'Upper Malm' serpulid limestones in NW Germany". Geologie en Mijnbouw. 72 (1): 23–67.
  • Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S. & Barnes, Robert D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Inc. ISBN 0-03-025982-7.
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Serpulidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta. The members of this family differ from other sabellid tube worms in that they have a specialized operculum that blocks the entrance of their tubes when they withdraw into the tubes. In addition, serpulids secrete tubes of calcium carbonate. Serpulids are the most important biomineralizers among annelids. About 300 species in the family Serpulidae are known, all but one of which live in saline waters. The earliest serpulids are known from the Permian (Wordian to late Permian).

The blood of most species of serpulid and sabellid worms contains the oxygen-binding pigment chlorocruorin. This is used to transport oxygen to the tissues. It has an affinity for carbon monoxide which is 570 times as strong as that of the haemoglobin found in human blood.

Empty serpulid shells can sometimes be confused with the shells of a family of marine gastropod mollusks, the Vermetidae or worm snails. The most obvious difference is that serpulid shells are dull inside, whereas the molluscan vermetid shells are shiny inside.

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Classification

provided by World Register of Marine Species
For Spirorbidae see Spirorbinae. ten Hove & Kupriyanova (2009: 5) summarized Serpulidae classification history as follows: "The Serpulidae Rafinesque, 1815 had been traditionally divided into subfamilies Serpulinae Rafinesque, 1815 (although probably in most papers attributed to MacLeay, 1840) and Spirorbinae Chamberlin, 1919 until Rioja (1923) established the subfamily Filograninae. Pillai (1960) included 5 brackish-water serpulid genera in the subfamily Ficopomatinae but ten Hove & Weerdenburg (1978) revised the group and placed all its genera in the genus Ficopomatus. Uchida (1978) created 11 sub-families and numerous new genera, but his scheme, strongly criticized by ten Hove (1984) has not been accepted widely. Pillai (1970) elevated Spirorbinae to the family Spirorbidae, but later a number of authors suggested that Spirorbidae are more closely related to Serpulinae than to Filograninae (ten Hove 1984, Fitzhugh 1989, Smith 1991, Rouse & Fitzhugh 1994) and that the maintenance of the family Spirorbidae is not justified. Recent phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Spirorbinae as a subfamily of Serpulidae (Kupriyanova 2003, Kupriyanova et al. 2006, Lehrke et al. 2007, Kupriyanova & Rouse 2008)."
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bibliographic citation
Hove, Harry A. ten.; Kupriyanova, Elena K. (2009). Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): The state of affairs. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 2036: 1-126. Burmeister, Hermann. (1837). <em>Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen. Zweite Abtheilung: Zoologie.</em>. <em>[book].</em> xii + pp. 858 [Zoology 369-858] T.C.F. Enslin, Berlin.
Contributor
Read, Geoffrey, G.B.