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Brief Summary

    Red brocket: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The red brocket (Mazama americana) is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the island of Trinidad in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (it also occurred on the island of Tobago until very recent historical times, but appears to have been extirpated there due to ineffectively regulated hunting of wild game practiced on the island).

    It formerly included the Central American red brocket (M. temama) and sometimes the Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora) as subspecies. Considerable taxonomic confusion still exists for the populations remaining in the red brocket. Pending a solution to this, it has been evaluated as data deficient by the IUCN, though as presently defined, it is the most widespread species of brocket. It is sympatric with the smaller Amazonian brown brocket over much of its range (the latter tends to have significantly lower population densities). The karyotype of the red brocket was initially described as having 2n = 68, FN = 74, and more recently as having 2n varying from 48 to 54 and FN varying from 54 to 56. This variability may indicate the presence of unrecognized species in the population.

    Its body is reddish-brown in color, with a lighter grayish-brown head and neck, and partially blackish legs. The inner thighs and the underside of the tail are white. Fawns are spotted white and lack blackish to the legs. Only the adult male has antlers, and these are small and spike-like. This species is the largest of the brockets. The shoulder height is 67–80 cm (26–31 in) and the head and body length 105–144 cm (41–57 in). These deer typically weigh 24–48 kg (53–106 lb), but exceptional males may get as large as 65 kg (143 lb).

    The red brocket browses on vegetation, preferring fruit when it is available. It is generally solitary and stays in dense jungles. When alarmed, the animal snorts or stomps its hooves.

Comprehensive Description

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 17.1 years (captivity) Observations: In the wild, these animals have been estimated to live up to 12 years (Bernhard Grzimek 1990). One captive specimen lived 17.1 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
    Red brocket
    provided by wikipedia

    The red brocket (Mazama americana) is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas.[1][2] It also occurs on the island of Trinidad in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (it also occurred on the island of Tobago until very recent historical times, but appears to have been extirpated there due to ineffectively regulated hunting of wild game practiced on the island).

    It formerly included the Central American red brocket (M. temama) and sometimes the Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora) as subspecies.[3] Considerable taxonomic confusion still exists for the populations remaining in the red brocket. Pending a solution to this, it has been evaluated as data deficient by the IUCN,[1] though as presently defined, it is the most widespread species of brocket. It is sympatric with the smaller Amazonian brown brocket over much of its range (the latter tends to have significantly lower population densities). The karyotype of the red brocket was initially described as having 2n = 68, FN = 74, and more recently as having 2n varying from 48 to 54 and FN varying from 54 to 56.[1] This variability may indicate the presence of unrecognized species in the population.[1]

    Its body is reddish-brown in color, with a lighter grayish-brown head and neck, and partially blackish legs.[4] The inner thighs and the underside of the tail are white. Fawns are spotted white and lack blackish to the legs.[4] Only the adult male has antlers, and these are small and spike-like. This species is the largest of the brockets. The shoulder height is 67–80 cm (26–31 in) and the head and body length 105–144 cm (41–57 in).[4] These deer typically weigh 24–48 kg (53–106 lb),[4] but exceptional males may get as large as 65 kg (143 lb).[5]

    The red brocket browses on vegetation, preferring fruit when it is available. It is generally solitary and stays in dense jungles. When alarmed, the animal snorts or stomps its hooves.

    Gallery

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      Mazama americana

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      Red brocket heart, specimen clarified for visualization of anatomical structures

    • PZSL1850PlateMammalia24.png

    References

    1. ^ a b c d e Durate, J.M.B.; Vogliotti, A. & Barbanti, M. (2008). "Mazama americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 November 2009..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of data deficient.
    2. ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
    3. ^ Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Alfred L. Gardner; J. Marcelo Aranda (April 1998). "The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 111 (1): 1–14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
    4. ^ a b c d Trolle, M., and L. H. Emmons (2004). A record of a dwarf brocket from lowland Madre de Dios, Peru. Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 19: 2–5
    5. ^ Nowak, R. M. (eds) (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    • Emmons, L.H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-20721-8

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets are native to the neotropical region ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and from sea level up to 5000 m in elevation.

    Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets are the largest members of the genus of brocket deer. The head and neck exhibit a light grayish-brown color. The inner thighs, throat, tail, and inner part of the ears are white. The rest of their bodies are reddish brown to chestnut red in color and young brockets are born with white spots. Males tend to be larger and have spikes to protect against predators. Their shoulder height measures 65 to 80 cm, tail length measures 8 to 15 cm, and the head to body length measures 103 to 146 cm.

    Range mass: 20 to 55 kg.

    Range length: 103 to 146 cm.

    Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets live in dense tropical forests with closed canopies and prefer either moist or really dry climates. They tend to stay near marshes, swamps, and streams along thick vegetative cover. Their small body size helps them to move easily through water and dense vegetation and remain unnoticed by predators. When night falls, red brockets forage on forest edges, in agricultural fields, and in gardens.

    Range elevation: 0 to 5000 m.

    Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

    Aquatic Biomes: rivers and streams

    Wetlands: marsh ; swamp

    Other Habitat Features: agricultural

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brocket diets consist mainly of fruit and some leaves and fibrous material. During the wet season when food availability is low, ttheir diet may consist mainly of fungi. In extreme cases where fruit and fungi become scarce, it may eat stems, bark, petioles, leaves, and animal matter instead.

    Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers

    Other Foods: fungus

    Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore , Granivore , Lignivore)

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets play an essential role within the Amazonian ecosystem. They alter plant communities and the overall structure of the forest by grazing and dispersing seeds. Without red brockets, certain plant seeds would not be dispersed and might become endangered or face extinction. Red brockets are also the main source of food for jaguars and pumas.

    Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; creates habitat

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets stand low to the ground, have a reddish-brown fur color to camouflage with the tropical vegetation in the background, and are well adapted for moving through thick vegetative matter. Anti-predatory adaptations behaviors employed by red brockets include freezing, swimming, and camouflage. If a predator decides to chase a red brocket, it will alternate between leaping and freezing behaviors in order to confuse the predator. If red brockets are near a river, they will use their exceptional swimming skills to escape. Known predators of red brockets are pumas, jaguars, and humans. Pumas and jaguars are stealthy hunters that often wait from a distance for the most opportunistic time pounce. Humans have hunted red brockets for meat and trade.

    Known Predators:

    • pumas (Puma concolor)
    • jaguars (Panthera onca)
    • humans (Homo sapiens)

    Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little information is known about the communication and perception of red brockets.

    Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets live between 7 and 12 years of age, but due to the elusiveness of this species, it is difficult to obtain sufficient data.

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    12 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    16 years.

    Typical lifespan
    Status: wild:
    7 to 12 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    13.8 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little information is known about the matings systems of red brockets.

    In the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, red brocket deer conceive during all months of the year except from September and October. In Surinam, they reproduce from September to April. Depending on where the red brocket deer are located, they may have peaks in conception during the dry seasons. Females between the ages of 0 and 4 years are more capable of birthing two offspring, whereas females between the ages of 4 and 6 years usually only produce one. Females reach sexual maturity around 11 months of age and males reach maturity around 12 months of age.

    Breeding interval: There is little information regarding the frequency of red brocket breeding.

    Breeding season: Red brockets breed throughout the year depending on rainfall.

    Average number of offspring: 1.2.

    Range gestation period: 222 to 228 days.

    Average weaning age: 6 months.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 11 to 13 months.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 12 months.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

    Average birth mass: 538.5 g.

    Average number of offspring: 1.3.

    Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    Sex: male:
    365 days.

    Little information is known about the parental investment of red brockets.

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Little is known of the conservation status of red brocket deer.

    US Federal List: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets occasionally cause damage to agricultural fields.

    Negative Impacts: crop pest

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red brockets provide valuable meat and a means of trade for humans.

    Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; research and education