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Brief Summary

    Tasmanian pademelon: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Tasmanian pademelon (Thylogale billardierii), also known as the rufous-bellied pademelon or red-bellied pademelon, is the sole species of pademelon found in Tasmania, and was formerly found throughout south-eastern Australia. This pademelon has developed heavier and bushier fur than its northern relatives, who inhabit northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    Males reach around 12 kg (26.5 lbs) in weight, 1–1.2 metres in length including the tail, and are considerably larger than the females, which average 3.9 kg (8.6 lbs).

Comprehensive Description

    Tasmanian pademelon
    provided by wikipedia

    The Tasmanian pademelon (Thylogale billardierii), also known as the rufous-bellied pademelon or red-bellied pademelon, is the sole species of pademelon found in Tasmania, and was formerly found throughout south-eastern Australia. This pademelon has developed heavier and bushier fur than its northern relatives, who inhabit northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    Males reach around 12 kg (26.5 lbs) in weight, 1–1.2 metres in length including the tail, and are considerably larger than the females, which average 3.9 kg (8.6 lbs).

    Habitat

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    Female and her joey.

    Pademelons are solitary and nocturnal, spending the daylight hours in thick vegetation. Rainforest, sclerophyll forest, and scrubland[3] are preferred, although wet gullies in dry open eucalyptus forest are also used. Such places, next to open areas where feeding can occur, are especially favoured. After dusk, the animals move onto open areas to feed, but rarely stray more than 100 metres from the forest edge.

    The species is abundant and widespread throughout Tasmania.

    Diet

    The Tasmanian pademelon is a nocturnal herbivore feeding on a wide variety of plants, from herbs, green shoots and grass, to some nectar-bearing flowers.[3]

    Once a part of the diet of the thylacine, the Tasmanian pademelon is still preyed upon by other predators of the island, including the Tasmanian devil and quolls. Even so, they are abundant to the point of being culled occasionally (along with other wallabies) to reduce competition for grass with the farmed animals. Hunting of the Tasmanian pademelon is allowed, its pelt having some economic value and its meat being palatable.

    Breeding

    There is no specific breeding season, though 70% of pademelon births seem to occur around the beginning of winter. Gestation for the female is 30 days. The young are in the pouch for about 6 months thereafter, and are weaned at around 8 months. Joeys are sexually mature at 14–15 months. Pademelons live between 5 and 6 years in the wild.[4]

    References

    1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Diprotodontia". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Menkhorst, P. & Denny, M. (2008). "Thylogale billardierii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
    3. ^ a b Menkhorst, Peter (2001). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia. Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-19-550870-3.
    4. ^ AustralianFauna.com Archived 2007-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. article on the Tasmanian pademelon

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Red-bellied Pademelons, Thylogale billardierii, are native to Australia and Tasmania, but now are only found on Tasmania. Red-bellied Pademelons were once widespread and abundant on the mainland of Australia, but they have been extinct on the mainland since the early 1900s. Red-bellied Pademelons are still abundant on Tasmania and the larger islands of Bass Strait.

    Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billardierii are short stocky marsupials. Adult males weigh about 7 kg, females only about 4 kg. Pademelons have a short tail and compact body that are useful for maneuvering through dense vegetation. Thylogale billardierii have soft fine fur that is dark brown to grey brown on the dorsal side (back) of the animal, and reddish brown or lighter brown on the ventral side (stomach). The males of Thylogale billardierii have a broad chest and forearms, which are factors that contribute to males being larger than females.(Parks and Wildlife Services of Tasmania)

    Range mass: 2.5 to 12 kg.

    Range length: 1 to 1.5 m.

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billardierii inhabit areas of dense vegetation, rainforest and wet forest. Thylogale billardierii will also inhabit wet gullies in dry open eucalyptus field. However, when in a clear area, they usually stay within 100 meters of forest shelter. (PBS)

    Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billardierii mainly eat short green grasses and herbs, and they occasionally eat taller woody plants. Thylogale billardierii are nocturnal and feed at night close to the protection of the forest. (PBS)

    Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

Associations

    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Known Predators:

    • Tasmanian wolves (Thylacinus cynocephalus)
    • Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii)
    • spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus)
    • wedge-tailed eagles (Aquila audax)

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 8.8 years (captivity) Observations: These animals have been estimated to live up to 10 years (Fisher et al. 2001), which has not been confirmed. One captive specimen lived 8.8 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The lifespan of Thylogale billardierri is around 5-6 years in the wild. There is unsufficient data for the lifespan in captivity. (PBS)

    Typical lifespan
    Status: wild:
    5 to 6 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: wild:
    5-6 years.

    Average lifespan
    Status: captivity:
    8.8 years.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billaridierii are polygynandrous. Occasional clicking can be heard in males chasing after females in oestrus. Immediately after birth, the female again comes into oestrus, but the blastocyst remains in embryonic diapause.

    Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

    Like other macropodids, baby Thylogale billardierii nurse in the mothers pouch after a short gestation period. In Thylogale billardierii, pouch life is six and a half months, and the young are weaned from the mothers teat around seven or eight months. Thylogale billardierii are usually sexually mature around fourteen or fifteen months. Thylogale billardierri are solitary animals that come together for mating, and will occasionally share a feeding ground.

    Thylogale billardierii reproduce in captivity year round, but in the wild 70% of births are in late autumn. The gestation period is 30 days. The young makes its way into the pouch immediately after birth, and attaches itself to one of four teats. If there are other siblings, the newly born joey will choose a teat not used by a sibling.

    Immediately after birth, the mother again comes into oestrus and mates. The resulting embryo develops into the blastocyst stage, and then remains in embryonic diapause. If the current joey is lost or removed, the blastocyst is developed and born 27-28 days later. If the current joey develops naturally, it will be replaced on the night he leaves the pouch by a new young resulting from the activated blastocyst(Rose et al. 1999).

    Breeding season: autumn

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    Average gestation period: 30 days.

    Range weaning age: 6 to 12 months.

    Average weaning age: 8 months.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 14 to 15 months.

    Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 14 to 15 months.

    Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous ; delayed implantation

    Average birth mass: 0.42 g.

    Average gestation period: 29 days.

    Average number of offspring: 1.

    The young of Thylogale billardierii are exclusively cared for by the mother, until they are weaned at around 7 months. (Rose et al 1999)

    Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Even though Thylogale billardierii is currently very abundant and widespread in Tasmania. The species is harvested each year to ensure that the numbers remain controlled and abundant.(PBS)

    US Federal List: no special status

    CITES: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billardierii avidly eat brush and foilage, sometimes competing with the livestock of Tasmanian farmers. This has been controlled recently by the installation of electric fences. (Statham 1994)

    Negative Impacts: crop pest

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Thylogale billardierii has a soft, fine fur that is valuable to humans. The meat of Thylogale billardierii has little fat, and is palatable to humans. Thylogale billardierii only inhabit Tasmania, this fact has added increased interest in tourism. (Stranham)

    Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism