Definition: aquatic organisms that construct and inhabit simple unbranched vertical shafts with only one opening to the surface. These are primarily above-sediment filter-feeders, surface deposit-feeders, and subsurface deposit-feeders (head-down, conveyor-belt feeders)
Definition: Downward conveyors exhibit a feeding strategy opposite to that of upward conveyors. Vertically oriented head-up feeders actively select and ingest particles at the surface and egest these non-locally as faeces in deeper sediment strata
Definition: Upward conveyors are vertically oriented species that typically feed head-down at depth in the sediment. Vertically oriented head-down feeders actively select and ingest particles at the deeper sediments and egest these non-locally as faeces in the sediment surface
Definition: The marine hydrothermal vent biome comprises regions of the marine benthic biome where heat generated due to tectonic activity, either at divergent plate boundaries or convergent ocean plates where back-arc spreading occurs, is released or 'vented' to the surface. The resultant high temperature water jets are laden with dissolved metals and minerals.
Definition: Sediment is an environmental substance comprised of any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bedor bottom of a body of water or other liquid.
Definition: Some deposit feeders do not ingest sediment haphazardly but use their palps or buccal organs to sort organic material from the sediment prior to ingestion. The method of sorting varies according to the types of palps present.
Definition: An organism which obtains food primarily by surface deposit feeding. Reid WDK, Wigham BD, McGill RAR, Polunin NVC (2012) Elucidating trophic pathways in benthic deep-sea assemblages of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 463:89-103. doi:10.3354/meps09863
Definition: Mucus is a bodily fluid consisting of a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. It is a viscous colloid containing antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozyme) and immunoglobulins. Mucus is produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes that cover the surfaces of the membranes. It is made up of mucins and inorganic salts suspended in water.