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Distribution

    Distribution
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    Podogymnura truei is endemic to the Philippines and restricted to Mindanao Island. Within Mindanao Island, P. truei occurs only in the provinces of Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, and Davao del Sur. It has been recorded on Mt. Apo, Mt. McKinley, and Mt. Katanglad.

    Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

    Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

Morphology

    Morphology
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    Mindanao gymnures are medium sized, ground dwellers with a body length of 130 to 150 mm. Their pelage is long, soft, and full. Dorsally their pelage is mostly gray mixed with coarser reddish brown hairs, while ventrally it is more hoary with some white and brown mixed in. Their ears are semi-naked and they have long whiskers. Their robust tail is about 1/3 of their body length (40 to 70 mm), moderately haired, and a buffy to purplish flesh color. Their pelage fades away to naked peach skin colored feet (hind food is 31 to 37 mm). Podogymnura aureospinula (found on Dinagat Island) is distringuished from P. truei by it's golden brown spiny dorsal pelage with black speckling. Podogymnura is closely related to Echinosorex; they share cranial and dental characteristics including a long rostrum and long, well-developed canine teeth. Podogymnura is smaller, has a shorter tail, and has less prominent temporal, sagittal, and nuchal crests. No reports on sexual dimorphism or mass measurements were found. Some pictures can be found at the Field Museum of Natural History webpage.

    Range length: 130 to 150 mm.

    Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

    Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Habitat

    Habitat
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    Podogymnura truei is confined to the mountainous forests of Mindanao. They prefer damp areas and are frequently found near standing water. They are widespread in primary and montane forests (1300 to 2000 m) and even more abundant in the mossy forests (2000 to 2900 m). They've been found among tangled tree roots, in thick moss covered roots, by logs in dense fern undergrowth, by dense stream edge vegetation, under grass at the edge of a lake, by boulders in densely fern covered valleys, and by hollowed tree trunks. Their habitats are comparable to those of true shrews (Soricidae).

    Range elevation: 1250 to 2900 m.

    Average elevation: 2200 m.

    Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

    Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; mountains

    Other Habitat Features: riparian

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
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    Insects, worms, and possibly carrion seem to comprise the majority of their diet, although there was one report of herbivory. They have been caught in traps baited with worms, bird flesh, or even fried coconut coated with peanut butter.

    Animal Foods: carrion ; insects; terrestrial worms

    Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Vermivore)

Associations

    Associations
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    Podogymnura truei is an important component of the highland ecosystems of Mindanao because it helps control forest insect populations.

    Commensal/Parasitic Species:

    • Sigmactenus
    Associations
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    No information on predation was found.

Behavior

    Behavior
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Their long whiskers give them good tactile sensation. Like other mammals, they are expected to use their sense of smell and chemical cues extensively.

    Communication Channels: chemical

    Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Almost nothing is known about the life history of this species.

Reproduction

    Reproduction
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    Mindanao gymnures are not well studied, no information on mating was found.

    No information on reproduction could be found in the literature.

    Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

    Like all mammals, female Mindanao gymnures are expected to nurse and care for their young until they are weaned.

    Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female)

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Mindanao gymnures are currently listed under the IUCN Red List as endangered because they occur only in a fragmented forested region on Mindanao Island, Philippines which is threatened by logging, slash and burn agriculture, and forest degradation. Heaney (1998) however argues that because of their occurrence in high elevation forests, which have comparatively little commercial value, forest degradation is not as great a threat. With their relative abundance in these areas, current populations should be stable.

    US Federal List: no special status

    CITES: no special status

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    There are no known adverse effects of Podogymnura truei on humans.

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Humans benefit from their insect control.

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Common names include: Mindanao gymnure, Mindanao wood shrew, and Mindanao moonrat. Podogymnura truei includes the occasionally referenced P. minima.