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Pacific Herring

Clupea pallasii Valenciennes 1847

Brief Summary

    Pacific herring: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, is a species of the herring family associated with the Pacific Ocean environment of North America and northeast Asia. It is a silvery fish with unspined fins and a deeply forked caudal fin. The distribution is widely along the California coast from Baja California north to Alaska and the Bering Sea; in Asia the distribution is south to Japan. Clupea pallasii is considered a keystone species because of its very high productivity and interactions with a large number of predators and prey. Pacific herring spawn in variable seasons, but often in the early part of the year in intertidal and sub-tidal environments, commonly on eelgrass, seaweed or other submerged vegetation; however, they do not die after spawning, but can breed in successive years. According to government sources, the Pacific herring fishery collapsed in the year 1993, and is slowly recovering to commercial viability in several North American stock areas. The species is named for Peter Simon Pallas, a noted German naturalist and explorer.

    There are disjunct populations of Clupea pallasii in North-East Europe, which are often attributed to separate subspecies Clupea pallasii marisalbi (White Sea herring) and Clupea pallasii suworowi (Chosha herring).

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    The Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, is one of three species of herring family (genus Culpea). It is a silvery fish with unspined fins and a deeply forked caudal fin. Clupea pallasii inhabits the Pacific Ocean environment of North America and northeast Asia. It occurs widely along the California coast from Baja California north to Alaska and the Bering Sea and in Asia south to Japan. Clupea pallasii is sometimes considered a keystone species because of its very high productivity and interactions with a large number of predators and prey. Pacific herring spawn in variable seasons, but often in the early part of the year in intertidal and sub-tidal environments, commonly on eelgrass or other submerged vegetation. They do not die after spawning, but can breed in successive years. According to government sources, the Pacific herring fishery collapsed in the year 1993, and is slowly recovering to commercial viability in several North American stock areas. The species is named for Peter Simon Pallas, a noted German naturalist and explorer. (Barnhart 1988; Wikipedia 2011)

    Brief Summary
    provided by FAO species catalogs
    Coastal,pelagic, schooling,migrating inshore to breed, but without any strong north-south migrations, the population being localized. Apparently landlocked populations (races) exist in the lakes of South Sakhalin, eastern Hokkaido and eastern Honshu.Feeds on euphausids, also copepods, mysids, amphipods and zoea of crabs Breeds from December to July, depending on the latitude, coming into shallow water and depositing eggs on marine vegetation (mainly eelgrass and seaweeds) or solid materials. Spawning fishes will enter estuaries.

Comprehensive Description

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 19 years (wild) Observations: Mortality rate increases with age have been reported for wild populations (Patnaik et al. 1994).
    Pacific herring
    provided by wikipedia

    The Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, is a species of the herring family associated with the Pacific Ocean environment of North America and northeast Asia. It is a silvery fish with unspined fins and a deeply forked caudal fin. The distribution is widely along the California coast from Baja California north to Alaska and the Bering Sea; in Asia the distribution is south to Japan. Clupea pallasii is considered a keystone species because of its very high productivity and interactions with a large number of predators and prey. Pacific herring spawn in variable seasons, but often in the early part of the year in intertidal and sub-tidal environments, commonly on eelgrass, seaweed[1] or other submerged vegetation; however, they do not die after spawning, but can breed in successive years. According to government sources, the Pacific herring fishery collapsed in the year 1993, and is slowly recovering to commercial viability in several North American stock areas.[2] The species is named for Peter Simon Pallas, a noted German naturalist and explorer.

    There are disjunct populations of Clupea pallasii in North-East Europe, which are often attributed to separate subspecies Clupea pallasii marisalbi (White Sea herring) and Clupea pallasii suworowi (Chosha herring).

    Morphology

    Pacific herring have a bluish-green back and silver-white sides and bellies; they are otherwise unmarked. The silvery color derives from guanine crystals embedded in their laterals, leading to an effective camouflage phenomenon.[3] There is a single dorsal fin located mid-body and a deeply forked tail-fin. Their bodies are compressed laterally, and ventral scales protrude in a somewhat serrated fashion. Unlike other genus members, they have no scales on heads or gills;[4] moreover, their scales are large and easy to extract. This species of fish may attain a length of 45 centimeters in exceptional cases and weigh up to 550 grams, but a typical adult size is closer to 33 centimeters. The fish interior is quite bony with oily flesh.

    This species has no teeth on the jawline, but some are exhibited on the vomer. Pacific herring have an unusual retinal design that allows filter feeding in extremely dim lighting environments. This species is capable of rapid vertical motion, due to the existence of a complex nerve receptor system design that connects to the gas bladder.[5]

    Life cycle

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    Juvenile fish

    Pacific herring prefer spawning locations in sheltered bays and estuaries. Along the American Pacific Coast, some of the principal areas are San Francisco Bay, Richardson Bay, Tomales Bay and Humboldt Bay. Adult males and females make their way from the open ocean to bays and coves around November or December, although in the far north of the range, these dates may be somewhat later. Conditions that trigger spawning are not altogether clear, but after spending weeks congregating in the deeper channels, both males and females will begin to enter shallower inter-tidal or sub-tidal waters. Submerged vegetation, especially eelgrass, is a preferred substrate for oviposition. A single female may lay as many as 20,000 eggs in one spawn following ventral contact with submerged substrates. However, the juvenile survival rate is only about one resultant adult per ten thousand eggs, due to high predation by numerous other species.

    The precise staging of spawning is not understood, although some researchers suggest the male initiates the process by release of milt, which has a pheromone that stimulates the female to begin oviposition. The behavior seems to be collective so that an entire school may spawn in the period of a few hours, producing an egg density of up to 6,000,000 eggs per square meter.[6] The fertilized spherical eggs, measuring 1.2 to 1.5 millimeters in diameter, incubate for approximately ten days in estuarine waters that are about 10 degrees Celsius. Eggs and juveniles are subject to heavy predation.

    Fisheries

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    Global capture of Pacific herring in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2009[7]

    Historically the Pacific herring has been an important species, due to its productive abilities to generate significant species biomass. Biomass estimates have been performed by scuba divers from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game since 1975 but the estimates remain highly variable.[8]

    Herring has long been fished by First Nations on the Central Coast of British Columbia, and elsewhere. In 1997 the Supreme Court of Canada rendered its decision in the Gladstone decision (R. v. Gladstone)- recognizing a pre-existing aboriginal right to herring that includes a commercial component to the Heiltsuk Nation.

    Due to overfishing,[9] the total North American Pacific herring fishery collapsed in 1993, and is slowly recovering with active management by North American resource managers. In various sub-areas the Pacific herring fishery collapsed at slightly differing times; for example, the Pacific herring fishery in Richardson Bay collapsed in 1983.[10] The species has been re-appearing in harvestable numbers in a number of North American fisheries including San Francisco Bay, Richardson Bay, Tomales Bay, Sitka Sound, Half Moon Bay and Humboldt Bay. In other areas, such as Auke Bay, which, in the late 1970s was the largest harvestable stock of herring in Alaska, the species remains severely depleted.[11]

    Pacific herring are currently harvested commercially for bait and for roe. Past commercial uses included fish oil and fish meal.[11]

    Conservation

    On April 2, 2007, the Juneau group of the Sierra Club submitted a petition to list Pacific herring in the Lynn Canal, Alaska, area as a threatened or endangered distinct population segment under the criteria of the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA).[12] On April 11, 2008, that petition was denied because the Lynn Canal population was not found to qualify as a distinct population segment. However, the National Marine Fisheries Service did announce would be initiating a status review for a wider Southeast Alaska distinct population segment of Pacific herring that includes the Lynn Canal population.[13] The Southeast Alaska DPS of Pacific herring extends from Dixon Entrance northward to Cape Fairweather and Icy Point and includes all Pacific herring stocks in Southeast Alaska.

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Herring Spawn on Kelp Photo Archived 2014-04-26 at the Wayback Machine.
    2. ^ Alaska Fisheries 1998 study Archived 2006-10-14 at the Wayback Machine.
    3. ^ Hourston, A.S. and C.W. Haegele, Herring on Canada's Pacific Coast, Canadian Special Publications of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa (1980)
    4. ^ Roger A. Barnhart, Species Profile: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Pacific Herring, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, February, 1988
    5. ^ J.H.S. Blaxter, The Herring: a Successful Fish?, Journal of Canadian Journal of Fish. Aquatic Sci.(suppl. 1) 42:21-30 (1985)
    6. ^ J.D. Spratt, The Pacific herring resource of San Francisco and Tomales Bays: Its size and structure, California Department of Fish and Game Marine Research Tech. 33, 44p (1976)
    7. ^ Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes, 1847) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
    8. ^ Hebert, KP (2011). "Scuba Diving Surveys Used to Estimate Pacific Herring Egg Deposition in Southeastern Alaska". In: Pollock NW, ed. Diving for Science 2011. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 30th Symposium. Dauphin Island, AL: AAUS; 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-02..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    9. ^ Dean, Cornelia (3 November 2006). "Study Sees 'Global Collapse' of Fish Species". New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
    10. ^ Patrick Sullivan, Gary Deghi and C.Michael Hogan, Harbor Seal Study for Strawberry Spit, Marin County, California, Earth Metrics file reference 10323, BCDC and County of Marin, January 23, 1989
    11. ^ a b O'Clair, Rita M. and O'Clair, Charles E., "Pacific herring," Southeast Alaska's Rocky Shores: Animals. pg. 343-346. Plant Press: Auke Bay, Alaska (1998). ISBN 0-9664245-0-6
    12. ^ "Endangered Species Act".
    13. ^ Announcement of initiation of status review for Southeast Alaska Pacific herring

Distribution

Size

Diagnostic Description

    Diagnostic Description
    provided by FAO species catalogs
    Body elongate and fairly slender, belly rather rounded, scutes without prominent keel. No median notch in upper jaw (cf. the introduced Alosa sapidissima of the eastern Pacific).

    Gill cover (operculum) without radiating bony striae (cf. Sardinops, which has dark spots along the flank).

    Pelvic finrays 8 (as in Sardinella lemuru of southern Japan, which has strong fronto-parietal striae on top of head and a pair of fleshy outgrowths on the hind border of the gill opening).

    No distinctive dark spots on body or fins.

    Can be confused with: Overlaps C. harengus in White Sea, but distinguished by fewer vertebrae and post-pelvic scutes (usually 52 to 55 and 10 to 14; cf. usually 55 to 57 and 12 to 16).

Benefits