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Gnetum gnemon L.

Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Gnetum gnemon
    provided by wikipedia

    Gnetum gnemon is a species of Gnetum native to southeast Asia and the western Pacific Ocean islands, from Mizoram and Assam in India, south and east through Indonesia and Malaysia to the Philippines and Fiji. Common names include gnemon, melinjo, belinjo, kuliat/culiat, padi oats or paddy oats.

    Description

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    Gnetum gnemon

    It is a small to medium-size tree (unlike most other Gnetum species, which are lianas), growing to 15–20 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 8–20 cm long and 3–10 cm broad, entire, emerging bronze-coloured, maturing glossy dark green. The fruit-like female strobilus consist of little but skin and a large nut-like seed 2–4 cm long inside. Male strobili are small, arranged in long stalks, and are often mistaken for flowers.

    Fleshy strobili weigh about 5.5 g, the seed alone 3.8 g. Strobili mature mainly from June to September in NE Philippines. The red (ripe) strobili are eaten by birds, mammals and reptiles.

    Uses

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    Emping melinjo chips, made from smashed Gnetum gnemon seed

    Melinjo is native to Indonesia and widely used in Indonesian cuisine. The seeds are used for sayur asem (sour vegetables soup) and also, made into raw chips that later need to be deep-fried as crackers (emping, a type of krupuk). The crackers have a slightly bitter taste and are frequently served as a snack or accompaniment to Indonesian dishes. The leaves are also commonly used for vegetables dishes in Indonesia and southern Thailand.

    This plant is commonly cultivated throughout the Aceh region and is regarded as a vegetable of high status. Its male strobili, young leaves and female strobilus are used as ingredients in traditional vegetable curry called kuah pliek. This dish is served on all important traditional occasions, such as khanduri and keureudja. In the Pidie district, the women pick the ripe fruit (its skin color is red) and make keureupuk muling from it. In Java, the young leaves and unpeeled seeds are used for ingredients in a dish called sayur asem.

    Although believed to be, recently, Japanese scientists found that Gnetum gnemon is not the cause of gout (uric acid disease).[2]

    At the present, Melinjo Extract is produced and supervised under cooperation between Indonesian Agricultural Association (NOFA (id:KTNA) ; Ikamaja's Mother Organization) and JASMELINDO (Japanese Non-Profit Organization), to protect certain profit for Indonesian farmers.

    Phytochemicals

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    Dimer Resveratrol Structure

    Recently, it has been discovered that melinjo strobili are rich in a stilbenoid composed of resveratrol and identified as a dimer. This result was published in XXIII International Conference on Polyphenols, Canada, in 2006.[3]

    Melinjo resveratrol, having antibacterial and antioxidative activity,[4] works as a food preservative, off flavour inhibitor and taste enhancer.[5] This species may have applications in food industries which do not use any synthetic chemicals in their processes.

    Four new stilbene oligomers, gnemonol G, H, I and J, were isolated from acetone extract of the root of Gnetum gnemon along with five known stilbenoids, ampelopsin E, cis-ampelopsin E, gnetin C, D and E.[6]

    The extraction of dried leaf of Gnetum gnemon with acetone water (1:1) gave C-glycosylflavones (isovitexin, vicenin II, isoswertisin, swertisin, swertiajaponin, isoswertiajaponin).[7]

    The separation of a 50% ethanol extract of the dried endosperms yielded gnetin C, gnetin L (new stilbenoid), gnemonosides A, C and D, and resveratrol which were tested for DPPH radical scavenging action, antimicrobial activity and inhibition of lipase and α-amylase from porcine pancreas.[8] Gnetin C showed the best effect among these stilbenoids.

    Oral administration of the 50% ethanol extract of melinjo fruit at 100 mg/kg/day significantly enhanced the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ irrespective of concanavalin-A stimulation, whereas the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 was not affected. New stilbene glucosides gnemonoside L and gnemonoside M, and known stilbenoids resveratrol, isorhapontigenin, gnemonoside D, gnetins C and E were isolated from the extract. Gnemonoside M strongly enhanced Th1 cytokine production in cultured Peyer's patch cells from mice at 10 mg/kg/day.[9]

    References

    1. ^ Baloch, E. 2011. Gnetum gnemon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T194943A8924190. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T194943A8924190.en. Downloaded on 22 May 2018
    2. ^ Mori, M., et al. (2008). Relationship between Lifestyle-related Diseases with The Intake of Indonesian Traditional Fruit Melinjo Rich in Phytoestrogens. Niigata, Japan. The 4th International Niigata Symposium on Diet and Health Integrative Function of Diet in Anti-aging and Cancer Prevention.[page needed]
    3. ^ http://umanitoba.ca/polyphenols_conference/misc/topic4.pdf[full citation needed]
    4. ^ Hisada, H., et al. (2005). Antibacterial and Antioxidative Constituents of Melinjo Seeds and Their Application to Foods. Japan. Science Links Japan. Archived February 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
    5. ^ Santoso, M., et al..(2008). Inhibition of Fish Lipid Oxidation by the Extract of Indonesia Edible Plant Seed `Melinjo`. Kyoto, Japan.[full citation needed]
    6. ^ Iliya, Ibrahim; Ali, Zulfiqar; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Furusawa, Miyuki; Nakaya, Ken-ichi; Murata, Jin; Darnaedi, Dedy (2002). "Four New Stilbene Oligomers in the Root of Gnetum gnemon". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 85 (8): 2538–46. doi:10.1002/1522-2675(200208)85:8<2538::AID-HLCA2538>3.0.CO;2-J..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    7. ^ Wallace, James W.; Morris, Gene (1978). "C-Glycosylflavones in Gnetum gnemon". Phytochemistry. 17 (10): 1809–10. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88711-7.
    8. ^ Kato, Eishin; Tokunaga, Yuji; Sakan, Fujio (2009). "Stilbenoids Isolated from the Seeds of Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) and Their Biological Activity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57 (6): 2544–9. doi:10.1021/jf803077p. PMID 19222220.
    9. ^ Kato, Hikaru; Samizo, Masayuki; Kawabata, Ryosuke; Takano, Fumihide; Ohta, Tomihisa (2011). "Stilbenoids from the Melinjo (Gnetum gnemonL.) Fruit Modulate Cytokine Production in Murine Peyer's Patch CellsEx Vivo". Planta Medica. 77 (10): 1027–34. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1250742. PMID 21267811.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    No voucher specimens have been seen by the authors but the species is very distinctive: the erect habit, yellow-green dried leaves, and lax male spikes immediately distinguish it from all other species in the area, and it is reasonable to accept these determinations. The species is widely cultivated in SE Asia and is to be expected in S China. F. Markgraf (Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 436-445. 1930) recognized several infraspecific taxa but the authors prefer not to use any of these without having seen the relevant material.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs or small trees; bark grayish; crown narrow; branches becoming vinelike, green or yellowish green. Petiole 0.5-1.8 cm; leaf blade drying yellowish green, elliptic or oblong, 7.5-20 × 2.5-10 cm, leathery or membranous, lateral veins inconspicuous, curved, base attenuate into petiole, apex acuminate or cuspidate. Male inflorescences axillary, solitary, simple or once branched; male spikes (1-)3-6 cm × 2.5-3 mm, involucral collars clearly separated, to 1 cm apart, each collar with 50-80 flowers plus 5-15 globose sterile female flowers, basal hairs inconspicuous. Female inflorescences similar to male; nodes each with 5-8 female flowers. Seeds sessile or nearly so, yellow to orange-yellow or pink, ellipsoid, 1-2.5 (-3.5) × 0.9 (-1.5) cm, longitudinally ribbed, surface usually velvety, apex mucronate.

Habitat

    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    SE Xizang, W Yunnan (Yingjiang Xian) [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific Islands]