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Chicle

Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen

Brief Summary

    Manilkara zapota: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla (/ˌsæpəˈdɪlə/), is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. An example natural occurrence is in coastal Yucatán in the Petenes mangroves ecoregion, where it is a subdominant plant species. It was introduced to the Philippines during Spanish colonization. It is grown in large quantities in Pakistan, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Mexico.

    The name "zapota" from the Spanish zapote [θaˈpote] ultimately derives from the Nahuatl word tzapotl.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) is an evergreen forest tree native to Central America, Mexico, and possibly the West Indies, but is now cultivated throughout the New World and Old World tropics. It may reach 20 m in height. The fruit, which is 3 to 8 cm long, is brown with black shining seeds embedded in the pulp. Immature fruits produce an unpleasant latex and should not be eaten. The seeds should be removed since they reportedly have a tendency to lodge in one's throat. Sapodilla is mainly a dessert fruit. It contains around 15% total sugars (roughly equal amounts of glucose and fructose) and 10 mg vitamin C per 100 g. The main acid constituent is malic acid. There is limited international trade in Sapodilla fruits. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997) Wild and cultivated Sapodilla trees can be tapped for their milky latex, which coagulates into "chicle". At one time, chicle was important in the manufacture of chewing gum. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997)
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Manilkara zapota, the sapodilla, is a tropical evergreen tree in the Sapotaceae (sapota family) native to and long cultivated by the Aztecs and Mayas in Mexico and Central America for its pear-flavored edible fruit and for its latex, chicle, the original source of chewing gum. Sapodilla is now cultivated in various tropical regions, including India, various parts of southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the U.S. (Florida) for its fruit, the latex tapped from the bark, and occasionally for timber. The sapodilla was an important component of forests in its native range in the Yucatan region of Mexico and throughout Central America—by some estimates, the region once had around 100 million sapodilla trees. The sapodilla is a large attractive tree, sometimes planted as an ornamental, reaching 18 to 20 m (58 to 65 feet) when grown in the open, but up to 30 m (100 ft) in forest canopies. The pointed, elliptical leaves are alternate, spirally clustered at the branch tips, and are leathery and glossy green, 7.5 to 15.5 cm (3 to 6 in) long. The small white to pale green flowers are bell-shaped, enclosed by 6 sepals (outer flower parts), and are borne singly in the axils (where leaf meets stem). The fruits are large-seeded berries, up to 11.5 cm (4 in) across, with variable shape but often egg-shaped with thin, rusty brown, rough skin covering yellow-brown translucent juicy flesh with 3 to 12 shiny, dark brown to black mildly toxic seeds in a whorl in the center of the fruit. The edible flesh may have the grainy texture of a pear or may be smooth. Sapotilla is now used primarily for its fruits, which are high in vitamin C and are generally eaten fresh or prepared in purées, ice creams, or beverages. However, its production of latex, chicle, for chewing gum, which was first used by used by the Mayas, was of great economic importance in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize from the late 1800s through the 1940s, when chicle was a component of popular chewing gums developed and sold by companies such as Wrigley’s and Beech-Nut. During World War II, shortages of chicle resulted in rationing of chewing gum for soldiers, and helped spur the development of synthetic replacements. Despite a recent revival of chicle as a natural health-food alternative to synthetic gums, chicle-based gums made up just 3.5% of the chewing gum produced in 2007. (Bailey et al. 1976, Forero and Redclift 2007, Matthews 2009, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)

Comprehensive Description

    Manilkara zapota
    provided by wikipedia

    Sapodilla, raw Sapodilla.jpg
    Fruit, cross-section
    Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy 347 kJ (83 kcal)
    19.96 g
    Dietary fiber 5.3 g
    1.1 g
    0.44 g
    Vitamins Quantity %DVRiboflavin (B2)
    2%
    0.02 mgNiacin (B3)
    1%
    0.2 mgPantothenic acid (B5)
    5%
    0.252 mgVitamin B6
    3%
    0.037 mgFolate (B9)
    4%
    14 μgVitamin C
    18%
    14.7 mg Minerals Quantity %DVCalcium
    2%
    21 mgIron
    6%
    0.8 mgMagnesium
    3%
    12 mgPhosphorus
    2%
    12 mgPotassium
    4%
    193 mgSodium
    1%
    12 mgZinc
    1%
    0.1 mg
    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient Database

    Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla (/ˌsæpəˈdɪlə/),[1] is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.[2] An example natural occurrence is in coastal Yucatán in the Petenes mangroves ecoregion, where it is a subdominant plant species.[3] It was introduced to the Philippines during Spanish colonization. It is grown in large quantities in Pakistan, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Mexico.

    The name "zapota" from the Spanish zapote [θaˈpote] ultimately derives from the Nahuatl word tzapotl.

    Description

     src=
    Sapodilla tree.

    Sapodilla can grow to more than 30 m (98 ft) tall with an average trunk diameter of 1.5 m (4.9 ft). The average height of cultivated specimens, however, is usually between 9 and 15 m (30 and 49 ft) with a trunk diameter not exceeding 50 cm (20 in).[4] It is wind-resistant and the bark is rich in a white, gummy latex called chicle. The ornamental leaves are medium green and glossy. They are alternate, elliptic to ovate, 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) long, with an entire margin. The white flowers are inconspicuous and bell-like, with a six-lobed corolla. An unripe fruit has a firm outer skin and when picked, releases white chicle from its stem. A fully ripened fruit has saggy skin and does not release chicle when picked.

    The fruit is a large berry, 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) in diameter.[5][6] Inside, its flesh ranges from a pale yellow to an earthy brown color with a grainy texture akin to that of a well-ripened pear. Each fruit contains one to six seeds.[6] The seeds are hard, glossy, and black, resembling beans, with a hook at one end that can catch in the throat if swallowed.

    The fruit has an exceptionally sweet, malty flavor. The unripe fruit is hard to the touch and contains high amounts of saponin, which has astringent properties similar to tannin, drying out the mouth.

    The trees can only survive in warm, typically tropical environments, dying easily if the temperature drops below freezing. From germination, the sapodilla tree will usually take anywhere from five to eight years to bear fruit. The sapodilla trees yield fruit twice a year, though flowering may continue year round.[citation needed]

    Other names

     src=
    Sapodilla fruits being sold on a street in Guntur, India.

    Sapodilla is known as mispel in the Virgin Islands[1] and Dutch Caribbean, zapote in Honduras, níspero in Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guyana, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia and Venezuela, dilly in the Bahamas, naseberry in Jamaica and other parts of the Caribbean, sapoti in Brazil (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐpuˈtʃi]) and Haiti, chico in the Philippines and chicosapote or chicozapote in Guatemala, Mexico, Hawaii, and Florida.[7][8]

    It is known as chikoo (chiku, "चीकू") in Northern India and Pakistan, ("چیکو" chiku and "ਚੀਕੂ" in Punjab) and sapota in some parts of India ("சப்போட்டா" in Tamil Nadu, "ಸಪೋಟ" in Karnataka, "సపోటా" Telugu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, "സപ്പോട്ട " in Kerala), sapathilla or rata-mi in Sri Lanka, sobeda/sofeda (সবেদা or সফেদা) in eastern India and Bangladesh, sabudheli ("ސަބުދެލި") in Maldives, sawo in Indonesia and saos in the province of West Sumatra, hồng xiêm (lit. Siamese persimmon), lồng mứt or xa pô chê in Vietnam, lamoot (ละมุด) in Thailand, Laos and (ល្មុត) in Cambodia.

    It is called ciku (pronounced chiku) in standard Malay and sawo nilo in Kelantanese Malay. In Chinese, the name is mistakenly translated by many people roughly as "ginseng fruit" (人參果), though this is also the name used for the pepino, an unrelated fruit; it should instead be "heart fruit" (人心果) because it is shaped like the heart.[citation needed]

    Biological studies

    Compounds extracted from the leaves showed anti-diabetic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic (cholesterol-lowering) effects in rats.[9]

    Acetone extracts of the seeds exhibited in vitro antibacterial effects against strains of Pseudomonas oleovorans and Vibrio cholerae.[10]

    • Manilkara-zapota-yucatan.jpg
    • Chikoo seeds.jpg
    • Manilkara zapota.jpg
    • Manilkara zapota - Nispero fruit and leaves 01.jpg
    • Manilkara zapota - Nispero fruit and leaves 04.jpg
    • Chikoo.JPG

    Synonyms

    Synonyms of this species include:[11]

    • Achradelpha mammosa (L.) O.F.Cook
    • Achras breviloba (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras calderonii (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras conzattii (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras coriacea Lundell
    • Achras dactylina Lundell
    • Achras gaumeri (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras latiloba Lundell
    • Achras lobulata (Lundell) Lundell
    • Achras lucuma Blanco
    • Achras mammosa L. nom. illeg.
    • Achras meridionalis (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras occidentalis Cels ex Ten.
    • Achras paludosa Lundell
    • Achras petenensis (Lundell) Lundell
    • Achras rojasii (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras sapatilla J.Paul & W.Arnold
    • Achras sapota L. [Spelling variant]
    • Achras striata (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras tabogaensis (Gilly) Lundell
    • Achras tainteriana Lundell
    • Achras tchicomame Perr.
    • Achras verrucosa Stokes
    • Achras zapota L.
    • Achras zapotilla (Jacq.) Nutt.
    • Calocarpum mammosum (L.) Pierre
    • Calospermum mammosum (L.) Pierre
    • Gambeya mammosa (L.) Pierre
    • Lucuma mammosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn.
    • Lucuma zapota (L.) Urb.
    • Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg
    • Manilkara breviloba Gilly
    • Manilkara calderonii Gilly
    • Manilkara conzattii Gilly
    • Manilkara gaumeri Gilly
    • Manilkara grisebachii (Pierre) Dubard
    • Manilkara meridionalis Gilly
    • Manilkara rojasii Gilly
    • Manilkara striata Gilly
    • Manilkara tabogaensis Gilly
    • Manilkara zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly
    • Manilkariopsis lobulata Lundell
    • Manilkariopsis meridionalis (Gilly) Lundell
    • Manilkariopsis petenensis Lundell
    • Manilkariopsis rojasii (Gilly) Lundell
    • Manilkariopsis striata (Gilly) Lundell
    • Manilkariopsis tabogaensis (Gilly) Lundell
    • Mimusops grisebachii Pierre
    • Nispero achras (Mill.) Aubrév.
    • Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist
    • Sapota achras Mill.
    • Sapota zapotilla (Jacq.) Coville ex Safford
    • Vitellaria mammosa (L.) Radlk.

    See also

    References

     src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manilkara zapota.  src= Wikispecies has information related to Manilkara zapota
    1. ^ a b Morton, J. (1987). "Sapodilla". In Julia F. Morton. Fruits of Warm Climates. Florida Flair Books, Miami, FL. pp. 393–398..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Manilkara zapota". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-04-30.
    3. ^ World Wildlife Fund. eds. Mark McGinley, C.Michael Hogan & C. Cleveland. 2010. Petenes mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC Archived 2011-10-15 at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ Manilkara zapota Sapotaceae (L.) van Royen, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A. 2009. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/)
    5. ^ Flora of North America, 8
    6. ^ a b Harris, Kate (2009). Trees of Belize. Belize: Bay Cedar Publishing. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780992758202.
    7. ^ "Sapodilla Fruit Facts", California Rare Fruit Growers. Retrieved on 2009/03/26
    8. ^ "Ten Tropical Fruits of Potential Value for Crop Diversification in Hawaii", College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Retrieved on 2009/03/26
    9. ^ Fayek NM, Monem AR, Mossa MY, Meselhy MR, Shazly AH (2012). "Chemical and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen leaves (Sapotaceae) cultivated in Egypt". Pharmacognosy Research. 4 (2): 85–91. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.94723. PMC 3326762. PMID 22518080.
    10. ^ Kothari V, Seshadri S (2010). "In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica". Biol. Res. 43 (2): 165–8. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602010000200003. PMID 21031260.
    11. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 18 October 2015

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: A native of W. Indies and tropical America.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    In Pakistan it is cultivated for its edible fruit, sapodilla plum, which when ripe is yellowish-brown, soft and sweet. The coagulated resinous latex is derived from the bark and is used commercially for making chewing gum.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Small or large tree. Leaves crowded at the end of branches, ovate-elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 2.5-3.5 x 7-12.0 cm, glabrous, subcoriaceous, midrib prominent. Flowers white, 1-1.5 cm across, long pedicelled. Sepals unequal, 3 larger than the others. Petals 6. Stamens 6, opposite the petals; staminodes as many as the petals, petaloid. Fruit usually a globose fleshy berry, 5-10 cm in diameter„ epicarp thin, rough rusty brown. Seeds 5-12, shining black, obovate, c. 2.0 cm long.

Cyclicity