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Oriental Beech

Fagus orientalis Lipsky

Brief Summary

    Fagus orientalis: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Fagus orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental beech, is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae. It is native to Eurasia, in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Oriental beech or eastern beech (Fagus orientalis) is a deciduous broad-leafed tree in the family Fagaceae. It can reach heights of 30 to 40 meters; in rare instances, trees up to 50 meters in height can be found. Growth can continue until the age of 160-200 years. In general, oriental beech has a similar appearance to European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Both beech species are characterized by their smooth and silver-grey stem; the stem color of oriental beech is a lighter grey than European beech. The leaves of oriental beech are egg-shaped without any lobes or peaks and have a short stalk. It bears both male and female flowers on the same individual and is a wind pollinated tree species. Oriental beech is indigenous to the Balkans in the west, through Anatolia (Asia Minor), to the Caucasus, northern Iran and Crimea. Oriental beech wood is principally used for fuel, but there are other uses such as particleboard, furniture, flooring veneer, mining poles, railway tiles and paper.

Comprehensive Description

    Fagus orientalis
    provided by wikipedia

    Fagus orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental beech, is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae. It is native to Eurasia, in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

    Description

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    In the Caucasus Mountains, Georgia.

    Fagus orientalis is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 45 m (148 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) trunk diameter.

    The leaves are alternate, simple, and entire or with a slightly crenate margin, 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) long and 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in) broad, with 7–13 veins on each side of the leaf (6–7 veins in F. sylvatica). The buds are long and slender, 15–30 millimetres (0.59–1.18 in) long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick, but thicker, till 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in), where the buds include flower buds.

    The flowers are small catkins which appear shortly after the leaves in spring.

    The seeds are small triangular nuts 15–20 mm (0.59–0.79 in) long and 7–10 mm (0.28–0.39 in) wide at the base; there are two nuts in each cupule, maturing in the autumn 5–6 months after pollination. The cupule differs from that of European Beech in having flattened, slightly leaf-like appendages at the base (slender, soft spines in European Beech).

    Taxonomy

    Fagus orientalis is closely related to the Fagus sylvatica (European Beech), and intergrades with it in the Balkans and northwestern Turkey. These hybrids with European Beech are named Fagus × taurica.

    Distribution and habitat

    The tree's natural range extends from southeastern Bulgaria's Strandja mountain, through northwest Turkey, and east to the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia and Russia, to the Alborz Mountains in Iran.

    Its habitat is restricted to mountain forests, at 500–2,100 m (1,600–6,900 ft) of altitude.

    The Oriental beech has colonized even lower altitudes in the Strandja mountain of Bulgaria as low as 200–300 m (660–980 ft) above sea-level, due to the unique local micro-climate, where it forms typical Fagus orientalisRhododendron ponticum forests as well as with other evergreen shrubs.

    Use

    The wood of Fagus orientalis is heavy, hard, strong and highly resistant to shock. These features makes it suitable for steam bending. The wood is also a source to fuelwood and can be used for constructions particleboard, furniture, flooring veneer, mining poles, railway tiles and paper.[1]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Kandemirm, G.; Kaya, Z. (2009). "Oriental beech - Fagus orientalis: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use" (PDF). EUFORGEN: European Forest Genetic Resources Programme..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}