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Elymus repens (L.) Gould

Brief Summary

    Elymus repens: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Elymus repens, commonly known as couch grass, is a very common perennial species of grass native to most of Europe, Asia, the Arctic biome, and northwest Africa. It has been brought into other mild northern climates for forage or erosion control, but is often considered a weed.

    Other names include common couch, twitch, quick grass, quitch grass (also just quitch), dog grass, quackgrass, scutch grass, and witchgrass.

Comprehensive Description

    Elymus repens
    provided by wikipedia

    Elymus repens, commonly known as couch grass, is a very common perennial species of grass native to most of Europe, Asia, the Arctic biome, and northwest Africa. It has been brought into other mild northern climates for forage or erosion control, but is often considered a weed.

    Other names include common couch,[1] twitch, quick grass, quitch grass (also just quitch), dog grass, quackgrass, scutch grass, and witchgrass.[2][3][4][5]

    Description

    It has creeping rhizomes which enable it to grow rapidly across grassland. It has flat, hairy leaves with upright flower spikes. The stems ('culms') grow to 40–150 cm tall; the leaves are linear, 15–40 cm long and 3–10 mm broad at the base of the plant, with leaves higher on the stems 2–8.5 mm broad. The flower spike is 10–30 cm long, with spikelets 1–2 cm long, 5–7 mm broad and 3 mm thick with three to eight florets. The glumes are 7–12 mm long, usually without an awn or with only a short one.

    It flowers at the end of June through to August in the Northern Hemisphere.[3][4][6][7]

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      Flower spike

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      Blunt ligule 1mm high, also showing a few very fine hairs of the plant

    •  src=

      Showing the leaf is dull green, mainly parallel, with auricles and ribbed

    •  src=

      Rhizomes

    •  src=

      Showing general tufted and visual appearance of the plant

    Taxonomy

    Various taxonomic subdivisions of this species have been proposed. Moreover, it is assigned to various genera (Elymus, Elytrigium, Agropyron). In a recent classification, three subspecies are distinguished, one of these with an additional variety:[2][3][4]

    • Elytrigia repens subsp. repens. Throughout most of the range of the species.
      • Elytrigia repens subsp. repens var. repens. Awns usually absent or if present, very short.
      • Elytrigia repens subsp. repens var. aristata (Döll) P.D.Sell. Awns present, up to 15 mm long.
    • Elytrigia repens subsp. elongatiformis (Drobow) Tzvelev (syn. Elytrigia elongatiformis (Drobow) Nevski). Central and southwestern Asia, far southeastern Europe (Ukraine).
    • Elytrigia repens subsp. longearistata N. R. Cui. Western China (Xinjiang).

    Hybrids are recorded with several related grasses, including Elytrigia juncea (Elytrigia × laxa (Fr.) Kerguélen), Elytrigia atherica (Elytrigia × drucei Stace), and with the barley species Hordeum secalinum (× Elytrordeum langei (K. Richt.) Hyl.).[3]

    Ecology

    The foliage is an important forage grass for many grazing mammals.[4] The seeds are eaten by several species of grassland birds, particularly buntings and finches.[8] The caterpillars of some Lepidoptera use it as a foodplant, e.g. the Essex skipper (Thymelicus lineola).

    Eradication

    Couch grass has become naturalised throughout much of the world, and is often listed as an invasive weed.[2] It is very difficult to remove from garden environments, as the thin rhizomes become entangled among the roots of shrubs and perennials, and each severed piece of rhizome can develop into a new plant. It may be possible to loosen the earth around the plant, and carefully pull out the complete rhizome. This is best done in the spring, when disturbed plants can recover.[9][10] Another method is to dig deep into the ground in order to remove as much of the grass as possible. The area should then be covered with a thick layer of woodchips. To further prevent re-growth, cardboard can be placed underneath the woodchips. The long, white rhizomes will, however, dry out and die if left on the surface. Many herbicides will also control it.

    Applications

    The dried rhizomes of couch grass were broken up and used as incense in medieval northern Europe where other resin-based types of incense were unavailable.[citation needed] Elymus repens (Agropyron repens) rhizomes have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine against fever, internally as a tea, syrup, or cold maceration in water, or externally applied as a crude drug.[11]

    References

    1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b c "Elymus repens subsp. repens". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-15.
    3. ^ a b c d Flora of NW Europe: Elytrigia repens
    4. ^ a b c d Flora of China: Elytrigia repens
    5. ^ Webster Third International Dictionary (Könemann, 1993) ISBN 3-8290-5292-8
    6. ^ Fitter, R., Fitter, A., & Farrer, A. (1984). Collins Guide to the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Ferns of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-219128-8.
    7. ^ Hubbard, C. E. Grasses. Penguin Books, 1978
    8. ^ Snow, D. W. & Perrins, C. M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic Concise Edition. OUP ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
    9. ^ "Couch grass / Royal Horticultural Society". Apps.rhs.org.uk. 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
    10. ^ Hessayon, Dr D. G. (2007). The pest & weed expert. United Kingdom: Expert. p. 128. ISBN 0903505622.
    11. ^ Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, A. G.; Heiss, E. H.; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, V. M.; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Quackgrass is widely distributed across North America: from coast to
    coast, south to the southwestern border states and north to Alaska [44].
    It is also widespread throughout eastern Canada [18]. Because
    quackgrass does not tolerate long, hot summers it is absent from the
    Gulf Coast States (except northern Texas) [36].
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan, N.W.F.P. & Kashmir); Europe and temperate Asia; introduced into many temperate countries.
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE HI ID IL
    IN IA KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MO
    MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH
    OK OR PA RI SD TN TX UT VT VA
    WA WV WI WY NF NS ON PQ
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1 Northern Pacific Border
    2 Cascade Mountains
    3 Southern Pacific Border
    4 Sierra Mountains
    5 Columbia Plateau
    6 Upper Basin and Range
    7 Lower Basin and Range
    8 Northern Rocky Mountains
    9 Middle Rocky Mountains
    10 Wyoming Basin
    11 Southern Rocky Mountains
    12 Colorado Plateau
    13 Rocky Mountain Peidmont
    14 Great Plains
    15 Black Hills Uplift
    16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

Morphology

    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cool-season, graminoid

    Quackgrass is a cool-season, exotic, perennial, rhizomatous graminoid.
    Its stems are erect, decumbent, and may reach heights of 1 to 3 feet
    (0.3-1 m) but more commonly grow to 0.25 to 1 inch (0.5-2 cm) high
    [18,21]. Quackgrass is green to whitish, with hirsute to nonhirsute
    leaves and awned or nonawned lemmas [18,26]. Rhizomes can grow 23
    inches (60 cm) or more from the main shoot before sending out stems [36]
    and grow as deep as 8 inches (20 cm) [26]. Dahlberg [12] described how
    to identify seeds of the Agropyron genus to distinguish between
    desirable and undesirable species.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Tufted perennial with extensive, wiry rhizomes; culms 30-120 cm high, erect or geniculately ascending. Leaf-blades usually flat, 6-30 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, glabrous or loosely hairy above. Spike lax or dense, 5-15(-20) cm long, erect and straight; rhachis joints scabrid along the margins. Spikelets 5-7-flowered, 8-17 mm long; glumes subequal, lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 5-15 mm long, acute, mucronate or shortly awned, scabrid on the nerves above; lemma lanceolate-oblong, 6-11(-13) mm long, glabrous and smooth, acute, awnless or with a subulate tip, palea nearly as long as the lemma, anthers 3.5-6 mm long.
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome elongate, creeping, stems distant, Stems trailing, spreading or prostrate, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems mat or turf forming, Stems solitary, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margin s folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea longer than lemma, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.

Habitat

    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fern

    Quackgrass invades gardens, yards, crop fields, roadsides, ditches, and
    just about any disturbed, moist area [21]. It invades mixed-grass
    prairies as well as oak (Quercus spp.)-hickory (Carya spp.) and
    whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests [1,24,49]. It can tolerate
    some saline conditions in the low-lying valleys of Utah [26].
    Salt-tolerant cultivars have been developed by crossing quackgrass with
    bluebunch wheatgrass [42]. Elevational range in four western states
    follows [14]:

    State Elevation

    Utah 5,100-8,200 feet (1,554-2,499 m)
    Colorado 4,800-10,000 feet (1,463-3,048 m)
    Wyoming 4,500-8,000 feet (1,372-2,438 m)
    Montana 5,000-6,600 feet (1,524-2,012 m)

    Some associate species of quackgrass include sedge (Carex spp.), bulrush
    (Scirpus spp.), rush (Juncus spp.), bluebunch wheatgrass, crested
    wheatgrass, red top (Agrostis alba), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans),
    bluestems (Andropogon spp., Schizachyrium spp.), smooth brome (Bromus
    inermis), poverty oatgrass (Danthonia spicata), panic grass (Panicum
    spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), common ragweed (Ambrosia
    artemisiifolia), prairie pepperweed (Lepidium densiflorum), prairie
    dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense),
    Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum), and bracken fern (Pteridium
    aquilinum) [1,5,11,15,24,26,28].
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    1 Jack pine
    15 Red pine
    16 Aspen
    20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
    21 Eastern white pine
    27 Sugar maple
    19 Grey birch - red maple
    51 White pine - chestnut oak
    55 Northern red oak
    108 Red maple
    208 Whitebark pine
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES10 White - red - jack pine
    FRES14 Oak - pine
    FRES15 Oak - hickory
    FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
    FRES19 Aspen - birch
    FRES29 Sagebrush
    FRES32 Texas savanna
    FRES36 Mountain grasslands
    FRES37 Mountain meadows
    FRES38 Plains grasslands
    FRES39 Prairie
    FRES41 Wet grasslands
    FRES42 Annual grasslands
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    K055 Sagebrush steppe
    K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
    K063 Foothills prairie
    K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
    K065 Grama - buffalograss
    K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass
    K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - beedlegrass
    K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss
    K069 Bluestem - grama prairie
    K074 Bluestem prairie
    K100 Oak - hickory forest

General Ecology

    Broad-scale Impacts of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    A May burn in oak savannas of Wisconsin significantly reduced quackgrass
    and halted flowering [13]. Similar results (reduction in biomass and
    cover) have been shown for other areas [23,28]. Burning quackgrass on a
    biennial schedule for several years has been effective in eradicating
    this species [1,3].
    Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, density, grassland, herbaceous, seed

    Five annual late April to early May burns in Minnesota resulted in a
    decrease in quackgrass height but an increase in cover [5]. Plant vigor
    was reduced and flowering stopped, but quackgrass continued to spread
    into adjacent areas. At the time of the April burns, plant height was
    between 3.9 and 5.9 inches (10-15 cm), and during the May burn, heights
    were between 5.9 and 9.8 inches (15-25 cm). May and June burns on North
    Dakota grasslands "harmed" quackgrass in the first postburn season, but
    quackgrass recovered to almost preburn levels by the second postburn
    season. Following the late June fire, quackgrass showed a slight
    increase in cover, height, shoot density, production, and flowering
    [39]. Wisconsin grassland fires in March caused an increase in seed
    production by July and August [23].

    The Research Project Summary, Herbaceous responses to seasonal burning in
    experimental tallgrass prairie plots
    provides information on postfire response
    of quackgrass in experimental prairie plots that was not available when this
    species review was originally written.
    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fire regime

    Quackgrass is adapted to certain seasonal fires because of its rhizomes.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cool-season

    Cool-season grasses such quackgrass are best eliminated with early
    spring burns [20,31,34]. Cool-season grasses can grow in the fall
    following summer dormancy; therefore, fall burns might also help reduce
    undesirable cool-season grasses [41].
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: chamaephyte, geophyte

    Chamaephyte
    Geophyte
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    Late spring fires generally reduce quackgrass cover, flowering and
    biomass, while early spring fires can increase these.
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: graminoid

    Graminoid
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    Quackgrass cover can increase following fire.
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: herb, rhizome

    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: rhizome, seed

    Quackgrass propagates mainly by rhizomes but also reproduces by seed.
    Seed production, however, is reported to be as low as 25 viable seeds
    per plant per season [36]. Studies in Alaska showed that seed viability
    may vary depending on how deep and long the seeds have been buried;
    viablity is reduced significantly after burial for 21 months [10]. In
    greenhouse trials, dormancy of seeds buried 6 inches (15 cm) deep was 16
    percent, while dormancy of seeds buried 0.8 inch (2 cm) deep was only 5
    percent [9]. Cross-pollination is necessary for seed production [44].
    Dormancy in rhizome buds has been related to nitrogen deficiencies,
    which peak in June [8]. Sod mats can be as dense as 367 meters of
    rhizomes per square meter [36].
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    Quackgrass is an early seral dominant in disturbed areas [15,22,27].

Cyclicity

    Flower/Fruit
    provided by eFloras
    Fl. & Fr. Per.: July-August
    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: rhizome

    Quackgrass flowers from June through August in Colorado, Wyoming, and
    Montana; and from June through July in North Dakota [14].

    Optimum temperatures for growth are between 68 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit
    (20 and 25 deg C), with no growth occurring above 95 degrees Fahrenheit
    (35 deg C) or below 35 degrees Fahrenheit (2 deg C) [16,36]. Primary
    rhizome growth begins in late May or early June and then again in
    September and October [36]. Rhizome growth seems to be favored by low
    temperatures [50 deg F(10 deg C)] and long days (18 hours) [36].

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, density

    Although quackgrass is considered an undesirable weed species it is
    often crossed with other wheatgrasses (Agropryon spp.) to create hybrids
    for grazing [2,6]. It can be controlled with chemicals such as
    glyphosate, dichlobenil, and fauzifop [50]. Sometimes, however,
    chemicals are not effective. In Wisconsin, 2,4-D applied to quackgrass
    caused a slight increase in quackgrass cover and no effect on stem
    density [23]. In Midwestern prairies, mowing and raking significantly
    reduced quackgrass biomass and prevented flowering the following growing
    season [13]. Mowing, burning, and chemical application combined may be
    the best way to eradicate quackgrass [33].

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    The degree to which quackgrass provides cover for wildlife has been
    rated as follows [14]:

    MT ND UT
    small mammals good fair good
    small nongame birds fair good fair
    upland game birds good good fair
    waterfowl good good fair
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    Quackgrass provides cover for numerous small rodents, birds, and
    waterfowl [30,45].
    Nutritional Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Quackgrass has been rated fair in energy value and poor in protein value
    [14]. However, food value studies in Minnesota showed that quackgrass
    had as much crude protein as alfalfa during May [37]. These authors
    list concentrations of 10 minerals found in quackgrass in Minnesota.
    Results of Alaskan studies showed that quackgrass did not contain enough
    magnesium required for ruminant digestion nor did it have a high mineral
    content. However, digestibility was 64 percent and greater in three
    harvest trials [38].
    Palatability
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Many palatable hybrid crosses of quackgrass and other species have been
    developed and planted for livestock [2]. Feeding trials in Minnesota
    showed that a quackgrass biotype was as palatable as alfalfa (Medicago
    spp.) [37]. In cattle grazing trials in Montana, preference was shown
    for some clonal lines of a quackgrass-bluebunch wheatgrass
    (Pseudoroegneria spicata) cross [46].

    The degree of use shown by livestock for quackgrass in five western
    states has been rated as follows [14]:

    CO MT ND UT WY
    cattle good good good good good
    sheep fair fair fair good fair
    horses good good good good good.
    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Quackgrass has been used to revegetate mine tailings in Nova Scotia
    [48]. A quackgrass/Fairway crested wheatgrass hybrid may be useful for
    revegetating mine spoils and roadsides [2].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    quackgrass
    couchgrass
    witchgrass
    quitchgrass
    quickgrass
    chiendent
    Synonyms
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.
    Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski [4]
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: glume

    The currently accepted scientific name for quackgrass is Elymus
    repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae) [51]. One variety
    and six forms have been recognized [18]. Short descriptions will follow
    each here, rather than in GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

    Form Glume Lemma Rachis
    E. r. aristatum oblong awned smooth
    E. r. trichorrhachis oblong blunt hairy
    E. r. pilosum oblong awned hairy
    E. r. vaillantianum lanceolate awned smooth
    E. r. heberhachis lanceolate blunt hairy
    E. r. setiferum lanceolate awned hairy

    E. r. var. subulatum lanceolate blunt smooth

    In the laboratory, quackgrass has been successfully crossed with the
    following species [2,18]:

    E. r. x E. arenaurius = Agroelymus adamsii Rousseau
    E. r. x Pseudoroegneria spicata
    E. r. x Agropyron cristatum.