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Tufted Wheatgrass

Elymus macrourus (Turcz.) Tzvelev

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
thickspike wildrye
thick-spike whild-rye
wheatgrass
tufted wheatgrass
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bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Thickspike wildrye is a native, perennial grass. It is loosely tufted and
sometimes forms short rhizomes. It grows from 15 to 30 inches (40-80
cm) tall. The culms are erect and the spike is slender and narrow
[6,10].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Thickspike wildrye occurs in northwestern North America from subarctic
Alaska east to the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories. It
also occurs in eastern Siberia [6,10].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, top-kill

Thickspike wildrye occurs on sites that are rarely disturbed by fire. As
a perennial grass, it probably has the capacity to sprout after top-kill
by fire.

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Thickspike wildrye occurs on alluvial flats, riverbanks, sand and gravel
bars, and less commonly on hillsides with good drainage and abundant
moisture. It also occurs on coastal precipices, swales in willow
woodlands, roadsides, and gravel banks [8,10,13,15].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

222 Black cottonwood - willow
235 Cottonwood - willow
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES28 Western hardwoods
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: severity

Thickspike wildrye is probably top-killed by fire and may be killed by
severe fires. Specific data on the severity of fire needed to kill
wheatgrass are lacking.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
This wheatgrass is presumably grazed by both livestock and wildlife.
Specific data are lacking in the literature.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: habitat type

Thickspike wildrye is not used in habitat type classifications. It occurs
in riparian stands with willows (Salix alaxensis, S. pseudocordata),
prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), western river alder (Alnus incana),
highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), northern
bedstraw (Galium boreale), alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina), common
fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), tilesius wormwood (Artemisia
tilesii), and rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra) [7].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
In field trials to study the forage potential of native grasses, E.
macrourus was found to have high initial yields but experienced stand
deterioration and serious weed infestation by the third year [17].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Averaged first and second cut nutritional values for thickspike wildrye are as
follows [17]:

percent of dry weight
crude protein (N x 6.25) 16.8
phosphorus 0.215
potassium 1.78
calcium 0.39
in vitro dry matter digestibility 65.6
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
AK NT YT
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
As a colonizer of disturbed sites, thickspike wildrye probably increases after
fire disturbances. Specific data are lacking.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: graminoid, ground residual colonizer

Tussock graminoid
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

Thickspike wildrye reproduces by seed, with seed set rates from 83 to 100
percent [8,9]. It is self-fertile [9].

Vegetative reproduction occurs through rhizomes [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info on this topic.

Obligate Initial Community Species

Thickspike wildrye appears to occur in early seral sites; it is
characteristic of disturbed sites [10,13].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Agropyron macrourum (Turcz.) Drobov.
A. sericuem Hitchc.
A. nomokonovii Pop.
Roegneria macroura (Turcz.) Nevskii
Triticum macroura Turcz.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The accepted scientific name of thickspike wildrye is Elymus macrourus
(Turcz.) Tsvel. [1]. There is some disagreement over this placement,
however, as is apparent from the number of synonyms. There are no
subspecies, varieties, or forms.

Thickspike wildrye forms hybrids with Siberian wildrye (E. sibiricus)
where they occur together. The sterile hybrid, xAgroelymus palmerensis
Lepage, has become increasingly abundant and is common along road
systems of south-central Alaska [8]. Thickspike wildrye also forms
hybrids with foxtail barley (Critesion jubatum); the resulting sterile
hybrid is named Elytesion pilosilemma (Mitchell & Hodgson) Barkw. & D.
R. Dewey [1,9]. Hybrids with meadow barley (Critesion brachyantherum),
named xAgrohordeum jordalii Melderis, also occur [6].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Thickspike wildrye can be used for revegetation of disturbed sites,
especially where it is desirable to establish native plants. It is
valuable on sites requiring erosion control. Its ablilty to establish
rapidly makes thickspike wildrye useful as a nurse grass for other, more
slowly growing native species [3].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like pani cle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, o r membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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Elymus macrourus

provided by wikipedia EN

Elymus macrourus is a species of grass known by the common names tufted wheatgrass and thickspike wildrye. It is native to northwestern North America in Alaska, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories. It is also present in eastern Siberia.[1]

This perennial grass grows in tufts of narrow, erect stems up to about 80 centimeters tall. It grows from a rhizome, resprouting to form new tufts. It also reproduces by seed.[1]

This grass occurs in moist habitat types such as riverbanks, sand bars, and woodlands, often alongside willow species (Salix spp.). It is also associated with prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), western river alder (Alnus incana), highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina), common fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Tilesius wormwood (Artemisia tilesii), and rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra).[1]

This grass easily colonizes disturbed habitat, such as areas recently cleared by fire. It is a useful species for revegetation in appropriate habitat. It helps prevent erosion.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Elymus macrourus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

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Elymus macrourus: Brief Summary

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Elymus macrourus is a species of grass known by the common names tufted wheatgrass and thickspike wildrye. It is native to northwestern North America in Alaska, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories. It is also present in eastern Siberia.

This perennial grass grows in tufts of narrow, erect stems up to about 80 centimeters tall. It grows from a rhizome, resprouting to form new tufts. It also reproduces by seed.

This grass occurs in moist habitat types such as riverbanks, sand bars, and woodlands, often alongside willow species (Salix spp.). It is also associated with prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), western river alder (Alnus incana), highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina), common fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Tilesius wormwood (Artemisia tilesii), and rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra).

This grass easily colonizes disturbed habitat, such as areas recently cleared by fire. It is a useful species for revegetation in appropriate habitat. It helps prevent erosion.

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