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Comments

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It is a good sand-binder and is very common in Taiwan.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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Comments

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This species forms natural hybrids with Zoysia sinica.

Zoysia matrella is a good sand-binding and lawn grass.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 497, 498 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Plant dwarf, with creeping rhizome or stolon. Blade narrow, 4-5 cm long by 1-2 mm wide; ligule a ring of hairs, minute, about 0.1 mm long; sheath-mouth sparingly covered with long silky haris. Inflorescence a single spike-like raceme, about 2 mm long. Spikelets 1-flowered, about 2.5 mm long, laterally compressed, lanceolate, shortly pedicelled; upper glume as long as the spikelet, broadly ovate, smooth, coriaceous, margins thinner and inrolled, 1-nerved, lanceolate; palea 1/2 the length of the lemma, hyaline, lanceolate.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Perennial, stoloniferous, mat-forming, also with shallow underground rhizomes. Culms up to 20 cm tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous, bearded at mouth with 4–5 mm hairs; leaf blades flat or involute, tough, suberect to spreading, 3–8 cm, 1.5–2.5 mm wide, glabrous or adaxial surface thinly pilose, apex acute. Inflorescence linear, 2–4 × 0.2–0.3 cm, exserted above leaves; spikelets 10–30, loosely overlapping; rachis somewhat wavy; pedicels shorter than spikelet, 1–3 mm, widened at apex. Spikelets 2–3 × ca. 1 mm, yellowish brown or purplish brown; lower glume usually absent; upper glume lanceolate, 5-veined, midrib prominent, sometimes scabrous toward apex, lateral veins obscure, apex obtuse; lemma oblong-ovate, 2–2.5 mm, obscurely 3-veined, midvein sometimes shortly excurrent; palea lanceolate, 1/2 as long as lemma. Anthers 1–1.5 mm. Caryopsis ca. 1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct. 2n = 20, 40.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 497, 498 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Widely distributed in the tropics of Asia, and now introduced into America as a lawn grass.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Coastal sands. Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [India, Indonesia, Japan (S Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 497, 498 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Agrostis matrella Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 185. 1771; Zoysia pungens Willdenow; Z. serrulata Mez; Z. tenuifolia Thiele.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 497, 498 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome elongate, creeping, stems distant, Basal sheaths fibrous, old leaves persistent at base of plant, Stems trailing, spreading or prostrate, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems mat or turf forming, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culm s, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades very narrow or filiform, less than 2 mm wide, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets solita ry at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 1 clearly present, the other greatly reduced or absent, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler
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USDA PLANTS text

Zoysia matrella

provided by wikipedia EN

 src=
Zoysia matrella in Nambur,Guntur,Andhra Pradesh.

Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., commonly known as Manila grass, is a species of mat-forming, perennial grass native to temperate coastal southeastern Asia and northern Australasia, from southern Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, and southern China (Guangdong, Hainan) south through Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines to northern Australia (northeast Queensland), and west to the Cocos Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean.

Other common names include Korean grass, Manila templegrass, siglap grass (after an area in Singapore), temple grass, Mascarene grass, harishiba, hierba Manila (Spanish), Japanese carpet, jukut kakawatan hijau (Sundanese), rebha sekem-sekeman (Madurese), burikit (on Seram), rumput siglap (Malay), damong-alat, barit-baritan (Tagalog), malakuwerdas (Pangasinan), ya-nuannoi (Thai).[3]

Description

It forms extensive, velvety, green mats, spreading vigorously by stolons, or occasionally by rhizomes, once established. Z. matrella grows in low elevation preferring sandy soils where other grasses establish poorly. The stems are slender and prostrate, ranging from 5–25 cm in length. The leaves are alternate, produced at 1.5–3 cm intervals along the stem; they are slender, 2–10 cm long and 1–3 mm broad. The flowers are greenish, produced on erect racemes 6–35 mm long with a single 2-3.5 mm flower in each spikelet.

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Zoysia matrella line drawing

Two varieties are distinguished by some authors:

  • Zoysia matrella var. matrella
  • Zoysia matrella var. pacifica Goudswaard (Syn Z. tenuifolia[4])

Cultivation and uses

Manila grass is grown as an ornamental grass, and is used for turf on golf courses in Asia, Europe and the Americas, as a lawn grass in the United States especially in the South, and is planted for grazing stock among the trees on tropical coconut plantations. In addition to its ability to grow on sandy soils, it tolerates high salinity, making it ideal for erosion control and lawns in coastal areas.

The variety of common names attests to its widespread occurrence in these regions along with its usefulness as a cultivated grass in diverse areas. It is naturalised in many places, as in Hawaii, and can become weedy, like many plant species with desirable horticultural characteristics.

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that this plant is "A grass of considerable value on littoral swamps and dry flats near the sea. According to Kirk, it is found sometimes forming a compact turf of dry land, and affording a large supply of succulent herbage for horses, cattle and sheep. Its value, however, in such localities, if bulkier grasses would grow there, must be comparatively little, as, from its close-growing habit, it chokes out all other species. It is evidently much relished by stock, and is worthy of introduction in sand-hill districts near the sea, or saline soil inland ; it would clothe the wet fiats with a valuable sward. It will be easiest propagated by roots, the closely-matted, wiry fibres forming coherent masses of turf, which are easily conveyed in fragments to a distance without injury."[5]

Allelopathy

Zoysia matrella shoot's contain allelopathic chemicals that appear to affect germination rates, radicle length, and shoot length with varying levels of harm with other plants. These chemicals also appear to decompose into inert chemicals within 15–30 days under moist soil conditions.[6]

References

Online
  1. ^ Agrostis matrella L, the basionym of Zoysia matrella, was originally published and described in Mantissa Plantarum Altera. Generum editionis VI & specierum editionis II. Holmiae (Stockholm) 185. 1771 "Plant Name Details for Agrostis matrella". IPNI. Retrieved May 23, 2011. Malabar, India (Indian Subcontinent, Asia-Tropical)
  2. ^ www.fao.org
  3. ^ "FAO Grassland Species Profiles". Retrieved 2006-11-14.
  4. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy for Plants". Retrieved 2006-11-14.
  5. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  6. ^ "Allelopathic potential of Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. plants. - Phytotoxicity of Zoysla matrella aqueous extracts and its residues". J-STAGE. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
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Zoysia matrella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Zoysia matrella in Nambur,Guntur,Andhra Pradesh.

Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., commonly known as Manila grass, is a species of mat-forming, perennial grass native to temperate coastal southeastern Asia and northern Australasia, from southern Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, and southern China (Guangdong, Hainan) south through Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines to northern Australia (northeast Queensland), and west to the Cocos Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean.

Other common names include Korean grass, Manila templegrass, siglap grass (after an area in Singapore), temple grass, Mascarene grass, harishiba, hierba Manila (Spanish), Japanese carpet, jukut kakawatan hijau (Sundanese), rebha sekem-sekeman (Madurese), burikit (on Seram), rumput siglap (Malay), damong-alat, barit-baritan (Tagalog), malakuwerdas (Pangasinan), ya-nuannoi (Thai).

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Zoysia tenuifolia

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Zoysia tenuifolia is a type of grass originally thought to be one of the native grass type to the Mascarene Island.[1][2] The epithet tenuifolia is commonly used to describe plant specimens in Mascarene Islands and Zoysia tenuifolia is also called Mascarene grass. Z. tenuifolia is not widely used as a general lawn grass due to its slow growth rate.

References

[3][4][5]

  1. ^ Oh, Jun-Suk; Lee, Yu-Jin; Lee, Sang-Kook (2015-12-30). "Late Fall Nitrogen Application and Turf Cover for Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) Spring Green-up". Weed & Turfgrass Science. 4 (4): 383–389. doi:10.5660/wts.2015.4.4.383. ISSN 2287-7924.
  2. ^ "Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele, Mascarene grass". plants.usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Archived from the original on 2017-06-16. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  3. ^ "Zoysiagrass". aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu. Aggie Horticulture, Texas A&M. Archived from the original on 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  4. ^ "Zoysia tenuifolia – the favourite no mow grass!". planttiles.com.au. Plant Tiles Australia. Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  5. ^ Robin Powell (3 June 2014). "Zoysia makes a brilliant green no-mow lawn". smh.com.au. The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
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Zoysia tenuifolia: Brief Summary

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Zoysia tenuifolia is a type of grass originally thought to be one of the native grass type to the Mascarene Island. The epithet tenuifolia is commonly used to describe plant specimens in Mascarene Islands and Zoysia tenuifolia is also called Mascarene grass. Z. tenuifolia is not widely used as a general lawn grass due to its slow growth rate.

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