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Life » » Plants »

Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze

Brief Summary

    St. Augustine grass: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) (also known as buffalo turf in Australia) is a warm-season lawn grass that is popular for cultivation in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a medium- to high-maintenance grass that forms a thick, carpetlike sod, crowding out most weeds and other grasses.

Comprehensive Description

    St. Augustine grass
    provided by wikipedia

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) (also known as buffalo turf in Australia) is a warm-season lawn grass that is popular for cultivation in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a medium- to high-maintenance grass that forms a thick, carpetlike sod, crowding out most weeds and other grasses.

    Characteristics

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    'Palmetto' with St. Augustine decline infection

    St. Augustine is a dark green grass with broad, flat blades. It spreads by aboveground stolons, commonly known as "runners", and forms a dense layer.

    The grass occurs on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean,[1] including much of the southeastern United States, Texas,[2][3] Mexico, and Central and South America.[1] It has escaped cultivation in California,[4] Hawaii, many Pacific islands, and New Zealand.[1]

    St. Augustine grass occurs in most Caribbean and Mediterranean areas. It grows best in tropical climates. It is often seen in lagoons and marshes, on shorelines, and wherever there is a good amount of moisture.

    Planting and propagation

    Only recently has commercially valuable and viable seed for St. Augustine become available, so it has typically been propagated by plugs, sprigs, or sod. Once the grass is cultivated, it can propagate on its own.

    St. Augustine can grow in a wide range of soil types with a pH between 5.0 and 8.5. It usually blooms in spring and summer.

    Uses

    St. Augustine grass is commonly used in pastures and on ranches. It is a popular lawn grass, rivalling bermudagrass, though St. Augustine is somewhat less drought-tolerant.

    Cultivars

    A number of cultivars have been developed:[5]

    • 'Captiva' - released in 2007. Developed by the University of Florida for its resistance to the southern chinch bug[6] and its dwarf profile, which requires less mowing.
    • 'Floratam' - released in 1973. Developed during an academic collaboration between the University of Florida and Texas A&M University.[7] Resists the viral infection St. Augustine decline (SAD). Not as cold- or shade-tolerant.
    • 'Floratine' - released in 1959. Has a darker color and finer texture. Tolerates lower temperatures and needs less mowing.
    • 'Palmetto' - released in the mid-1990s. A smaller, lighter green grass.
    • 'Raleigh' - released in 1980. Tolerant of cold, but susceptible to insects and disease.
    • 'Sapphire' - released in 2004. Selected from Australia for its dark blue-green leaves and purple stolons and rapid lateral growth.
    • 'Seville' - released in 1980. Similar to 'Floratam', but with a finer texture.
    • 'Sir Walter' - released in 1996. Developed for Australian conditions with traits such as heat and drought tolerance.[8]
    • 'Texas Common' - Most similar to the natural species, it has fallen out of favor due to its susceptibility to the incurable SAD virus.

    References

    1. ^ a b c "Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "St. Augustine grass". Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22.
    3. ^ "Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze". USDA PLANTS.
    4. ^ "Taxon Report 7783: Stenotaphrum secundatum". The CalFlora Database.
    5. ^ Trenholm, L. E., et al. St. Augustinegrass for Florida Lawns. Publication #ENH5. University of Florida IFAS. 1991. Revised 2011.
    6. ^ Buss, E. A. "Southern Chinch Bug Management on St. Augustinegrass". Publication #ENY-325. University of Florida IFAS. 1993. Revised 2010.
    7. ^ http://today.tamu.edu/2012/09/06/collaboration-between-texas-am-and-university-of-florida-creates-popular-lawn-grass/
    8. ^ History of Sir Walter

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This grass is widely cultivated in the moist tropics as a lawn grass (St. Augustine Grass).
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennial, stoloniferous and forming a dense sward. Culms much branched, flowering shoots 10–30 cm tall. Leaf sheaths strongly keeled, often grouped in flabellate clusters; leaf blades broadly linear, folded when young, up to 15 × 0.4–1 cm, apex obtuse; ligule ca. 0.5 mm. Inflorescence 5–12 cm, slender, cylindrical; axis corky, disarticulating into segments at maturity; racemes 4–10 mm, reduced to 1–3 spikelets embedded in one face of the rachis, alternating on either side of the sinuous midrib; raceme rachis a stout pointed appendage within the axis cavity. Spikelets lanceolate, 4–5 mm, acute; lower glume up to 1/4 as long as spikelet; upper glume as long as spikelet; lower floret staminate, lemma cartilaginous, 3-veined, palea well developed; upper lemma papery, subequal to spikelet, smooth, acute. Fl. and fr. summer.
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stolons or runners present, Stems trailing, spreading or prostrate, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems mat or turf forming, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems compressed, flattened, or sulcate, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves pseudo-petiolate, petiole attached to sheath, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath hairy , hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath or blade keeled, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades disarticulating from sheath, deciduous at ligule, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Rachis dilated, flat, central axis to which spikelets are attached, Rachis enlarged, corky, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile fl oret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Inflorescence branches deciduous, falling intact, Entire inflorescence falling intact, as a tumbleweed, Spikelets secund, in rows on one side of rachis, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 1, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Ischaemum secundatum Walter, Fl. Carol. 249. 1788.

Habitat

    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Cultivated as lawn grass. Hong Kong [tropical and subtropical shores on both sides of Atlantic Ocean, extending around S Africa to Mozambique].