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Swamp Foxtail

Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng.

Brief Summary

    Pennisetum alopecuroides: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Pennisetum alopecuroides, the Chinese pennisetum, Chinese fountaingrass, dwarf fountain grass, foxtail fountain grass, or swamp foxtail grass, is a species of perennial grass native to Asia and Australia. Culms are erect, and 60–100 cm long; leaf-blades are erect or drooping; flat, or conduplicate, or involute; and from 10–45 cm long by 3–6 mm wide. Pronunciation: Pennisetum (pen-ih-SEE-tum) alopecuroides (al-oh-pek-yur-OY-deez)

Comprehensive Description

    Pennisetum alopecuroides
    provided by wikipedia

     src= Wikispecies has information related to Pennisetum alopecuroides  src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pennisetum alopecuroides.

    Pennisetum alopecuroides, the Chinese pennisetum, Chinese fountaingrass, dwarf fountain grass, foxtail fountain grass, or swamp foxtail grass, is a species of perennial grass native to Asia and Australia. Culms are erect, and 60–100 cm long; leaf-blades are erect or drooping; flat, or conduplicate, or involute; and from 10–45 cm long by 3–6 mm wide. Pronunciation: Pennisetum (pen-ih-SEE-tum) alopecuroides (al-oh-pek-yur-OY-deez)[1]

    Ideal growing cConditions

    The plant generally needs full sun to light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil and will grow in any soil except those that are poorly drained The best time of the year to grow one is between the months of August to Winter.[2]

    Additional information

    The plant is a warm season ornamental grass which typically grows in graceful, spreading clumps from 2-3' tall and as wide. Features narrow, medium to deep green leaves (to 1/2" wide) in summer, changing to golden yellow in fall and fading to beige in late fall. Foliage usually remains attractive throughout the winter. Showy, silvery to pinkish-white, bristly, bottle brush-like flower spikes arch outward from the clump in late summer like water spraying from a fountain (hence the common name). Flower spikes turn brownish as the seeds form, and spikes usually persist until late fall or early winter before shattering. Many excellent fountain grass cultivars are available in commerce, ranging in height from 1-5' and featuring a variety of different flower colors (purples, pinks or whites) and autumn foliage.[3]

    Genus name comes from the Latin penna meaning feather and seta meaning bristle in reference to the flowers having long, feathery bristles.

    Specific epithet means like a foxtail grass.

    Synonyms

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    Pennisetum alopecuroides
    • Alopecurus hordeiformis L.
    • Panicum alopecuroides L. (basionym)
    • Pennisetum compressum R. Br.
    • Pennisetum hordeiforme (Thunb.) Spreng.
    • Pennisetum japonicum Trin. ex Spreng.

    References

    1. ^ "Pennisetum alopecuroides - Fountain Grass". Bluestem. Retrieved 10 November 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Pennisetum alopecuroides - Fountain Grass". Bluestem. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
    3. ^ "Pennisetum alopecuroides". Missouri Botanical Gardens. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Myanmar, Malesia, Australia, Polynesia, China and Japan. Taiwan, common on sunny hillsides, raodsides and rice fields.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines; Australia, Pacific Islands (Polynesia)].

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This species is used for forage.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennials; clum compressed, stout, tufted, 50-100 cm tall. Blade coriaceous, 30-60 cm long, 5-8 mm wide, often involute farinose; sheath glabrous, marging ciliate; ligule a ring of hairs, ca. 0.5 mm long. Panicle spike-like, cylindrical, 10-15 cm long, main axis hairy; sterile branches forming bristles and subtending spikelet, these falling off with spikelet; pedicel 2-3mm long. Spikelets ca. 7 mm long, lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, acute; glumes more or less hardened; lower glume minute; upper glume 1/2 as long as spikelet, narrowly oblong, acute; lower lemma and upper lemma equal in length, acute, broadly lanceolate; upper lemma hyaline.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennial forming dense tussocks. Culms stout, 30–120 cm tall, hispid below inflorescence. Leaf sheaths papery, keeled, imbricate at culm base; leaf blades linear, flat or often involute, 10–80 × 0.3–1 cm, base papillose-hispid, apex long acuminate; ligule 0.5–2.5 mm. Inflorescence linear, 5–25 × 1.5–3.5 cm; axis hispid, peduncle stumps short with crateriform tips; involucre usually enclosing one spikelet, rarely 2, basal stipe (1–)2–3 mm; bristles greenish or purple, longest 2–3 cm but not conspicuously longer than the others, all slender, hispid. Spikelet lanceolate, 5–8 mm; lower glume 0.6–3 mm, 0–1-veined, obtuse; upper glume ovate-lanceolate, 1/3–2/3 as long as spikelet, 3–5-veined; lower lemma as long as spikelet, 7–11-veined; upper lemma lanceolate, as long as spikelet, papery, acuminate; anthers usually glabrous, occasionally with 1 or 2 hairs at tip. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn. 2n = 18.
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clus tered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath or blade keeled, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets 1-4 in short bristly fascicles, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Spikelets in bur-like clusters or fascicles with fused bracts, bristles or spines, Spikelets all subtended by bristles, Spikelet bristles 4-many, Inner spikelet bristles all round, Spikelet bracts or bristles disarticulating with spikelet, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin , lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 1, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Panicum alopecuroideum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2. 82. 1762.
    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Panicum alopecuroides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753; Cenchrus purpurascens Thunberg; Gymnotrix japonica (Trinius) Kunth var. viridescens Miquel; Pennisetum alopecuroides var. erythrochaetum Ohwi; P. chinense Steudel; P. compressum R. Brown; P. dispiculatum L. C. Chia; P. japonicum Trinius; P. purpurascens (Thunberg) Kuntze (1891), not Kunth (1816).

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Grassy hillsides, roadsides, field margins; sea level to 3200 m.